Lower Anatomy- Thigh

The posterior thigh compartment muscles are all innervated by what nerve?
Sciatic nerver

What two muscles are contained in the superficial layer of the posterior compartment?
1. Biceps Femoris, Long head
2. Semitendinosus

The long head of the biceps femoris originates where?
PIM ischial tuberosity.

The long head of the biceps femoris inserts where?
– Lateral aspect of the fibular head
-Anterior edge of the lateral tibial condyle.

What is the action of the long head of the biceps femoris muscle?
– Extends the thigh
-Flexes and laterally rotates the leg.

What is the nerve supply of the long head of the biceps femoris?
Tibial part of the sciatic n.

What is the arterial supply of the long head of biceps femoris?
– Profunda femoral perforating a.
– Inferior Gluteal a.
– Popliteal a.

What muscle is named for its long, slender, tendon-like shape?
Semitendinosus m.

The semitendinosus muscle shares an origin with what other muscle?
Long head of the biceps femoris m.

What is the insertion of the semitendinosus muscle?
Proximal medial shaft of the tibia (forms part of the peso anserinus)

What is the action of the semitendinosus muscle?
-Extends the thigh
– Flexes and medially rotates the leg

What is the arterial supply to the semitendinosus muscle?
– Profunda femoral perforating a.
– Inferior Gluteal a.
– Popliteal a.

True / False → the semitendinosus muscle forms part of the pes anserinus
True

What two muscles are in the deep layer of the posterior compartment of the thigh?
1. Biceps femoris, short head
2. Semimembranosus m.

What is the origin of the short head of the biceps femoris muscle?
– Lateral lip of the linea aspera (inferior 2/3)
-Lateral supracondylar line
– Posterior femoral inter muscular septum

The insertion of the short head of the biceps femoris muscle is shared with what other muscle?
Long head of the biceps femoris

What is the action of the short head of the biceps femoris muscle?
Flexes and laterally rotates the leg

18. True / False → The short head of the biceps femoris is the only muscle in the posterior compartment with a different innervation
True (common fibular part of the sciatic n)

What is the arterial supply of the biceps femoris short head?
– Profunda femoris perforating a
-Popliteal a.

What is the name of the muscle that is named for its superior membrane-like part that is located anteromedial to the semitendinosus muscle?
Semimembranosus m.

What is the origin of the semimembranosus muscle?
PSL ischial tuberosity

*What is the insertion of the semimembranosus muscle?
– Groove for semimembranosus m (on the posterior aspect of the medial tibial condyle)
-Posterior knee joint as the oblique popliteal ligament and the facia over the popliteaus m.

What is the action of the semimembranosus muscle?
– Extends the thigh
-Flexes and medially rotates the leg

What is the blood supply of the semimembranosus muscle?
– Profunda femoral perforating a.
– Inferior Gluteal a.
– Popliteal a.

True / False → The semimembranosus muscle forms part of the pes anserinus
False

What three muscles are known as the hamstring group?
1. Long head of the biceps femoris m.
2. Semitendinosus m.
3. Semimembranosus m.

*The hamstring muscles all originate on what bony structure?
Ischial tuberosity

The hamstring muscles all have what action?
Extend the thigh
Flex the leg

What two muscles make up the superficial layer of the anterior compartment of the thigh?
1. Tensor Fascia lata
2. Sartorius m.

What is the origin of the tensor fascia lata muscle?
Lateral lip of the iliac crest, anterior to iliac tubercle

What is the insertion of the tensor fascia lata muscle?
IT band which attaches to Gerdy’s Tubercle

What is the action of the tensor fascia lata muscle?
– Flex and abduct the thigh (this stabilizes the hip during gait)
– Extend the leg (this stabilizes the knee during gait)

The tensor fascia lata muscle is the only anterior compartment muscle with a different innervation. What is its innervation?
Superior gluteal n.

What is the arterial supply to the tensor fascia lata muscle?
– Lateral femoral circumflex a.
– Superior gluteal a.

In Iliotibial band syndrome a tightening of the muscle or band causes rubbing of the band against what structure causing inflammation?
lateral femoral epicondyle, combined with the repeated flexion and extension of the knee during running may cause the area to become inflamed.

What is the name for the longest muscle in the body?
Sartorius m.

*What is the origin of the Sartorius muscle?
ASIS

What is the insertion of the Sartorius muscle?
Proximal medial shaft of the tibia (forms part of the pes anserinus)

True / False → The Sartorius muscle forms part of the pes anserinus
True

What is the action of the Sartorius muscle?
– Flex and laterally rotate the thigh
– Flex the leg
(all combined is the tailor position)

True / False → The Sartorius muscle is the muscle that allows you to cross your legs (into tailor position)
True

What is the nerve supply to the Sartorius muscle?
Femoral n.

What is the blood supply to the Sartorius muscle?
Femoral a.

What muscle forms the intermediate layer of the anterior compartment thigh muscles?
Rectus Femoris m.

The rectus femoris muscle has 2 heads, name them and their origins
1. Straight/ Anterior Head: AIIS
2. Reflected/ Posterior Head: Iliac part of acetabular rim, externally

What is the insertion of the rectus femoris muscle?
Base of the patella forming part of the quadriceps tendon, and then to the tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon.

What is the action of the rectus femoris muscle?
– Extend the leg at the knee
-Assists iliopsoas with flexion of thigh

What is the nerve supply to the rectus femoris muscle?
Femoral n.

What is the arterial supply to the rectus femoris muscle?
Descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex a.

What are the four muscles in the deep layer of the anterior compartment muscles?
1. Vastus Intermedius
2. Vastus Lateralis
3. Vastus Medialis
4. Articularis Genu

Generally, the anterior thigh compartment muscles are innervated by what nerve?
Femoral n.

What is the origin of the vastus intermedius muscle?
– Superior 2/3 of the femoral shaft (anterior and lateral surfaces)

What is the insertion of the vastus intermedius muscle?
Base of the patella forming part of the quadriceps tendon, and then to the tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon.

What is the action of the vastus intermedius muscle?
Extends the leg at the knee

True / False → The vastus lateralis and vastus medialis share the same blood supply (if true what is it?)
True.
-Descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex a.

What is the origin of the vastus lateralis?
– Superior intertrochanteric line
– Anterior and inferior greater trochanter
– Lateral edge of the gluteal tuberosity
– Superior lateral lip of the linea aspera

What is the insertion of the vastus lateralis?
Lateral border of the patella forming part of the quadriceps tendon, and then to the tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon.

What is the action of the vastus lateralis?
– Extend the leg at the knee
– Pull the patella laterally

What is the origin of the vastus medialis muscle?

60. What is the insertion of the vastus medialis muscle?

61. What is the action of the vastus medialis muscle?

62. What is the arterial supply of the vastus medialis muscle?

63. What is the name of the very small anterior compartment muscle that lies deep to the inferior part of the vastus medialis muscle?

64. What is the origin of the articularis genu muscle?

65. What is the insertion of the articularis genu muscle?

66. What is the action of the articularis genu muscle?

67. What is the arterial supply of the articularis genu muscle?

68. What four muscles are considered to be part of the quadriceps femoris muscle?

69. Together, the quadriceps femoris muscle forms what tendon? __________________________ This tendon attaches where?___________________________________ The quadriceps tendon also envelopes what _______________________________ to form what tendon?
-Patellar tendon

71. What is the largest sesamoid bone in the body?
Patella

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TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE *Origin*: base of skull, spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae *Insertion*: Clavicle; acromion process and scapular spine *Action*: Elevates and depresses scapula, retracts scapula, also rotates scapula *Innervation*: Accessory N. C3 and C4 Blood supply: transverse cervical …

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Where is the adductor tubercle of the femur located, and what attaches there? -Located just superior to the medial epicondyle -Tendons of the adductor magnus attach to it What bone articulates with the prominent surfaces on the anterior parts of …

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