Anatomy and Oral Structures

Cranium
portion of the skull that encloses the brain.

Temporal
2 fan-shaped bones, one on each side of the skull, in the temporal area above each ear.

Parietal
2 bones, one on each side, that make up the roof and side walls covering the brain.

Frontal
a single bone in the frontal or anterior region that makes up the forehead.

Occipital
one large, thick bone at the lower back of the head that forms the base of the skull and contains a large opening for the spinal cord passage to the brain.

Ethmoid
a spongy bone located between the eye orbits that helps form the roof and part of the anterior nasal fossa of the skull.

Spenoid
a large bone at the base of the skull, situated between the occipital and ethmoid bones in front of and between the parietal and temporal bones on each side.

Zygomatic
2 facial bones, one under each eye, that form and give shape to the cheekbone. also called the malar bones.

Maxilla
2 facial bones, one under each eye, that unite in the center to form the upper jaw and support the maxillary teeth.
maxillary sinus is the largest and is called the atrium of highmore.

Palatine
2 bones, one each on the left and the right, that form the hard palate of the mouth and the nasal floor.

Nasal
2 bones, one left and one right, that form the arch or bridge of the nose.

Lacrimal
2 bones, one each, at the inner side or nose site of the orbital cavity.

Inferior nasal conchae
2 thin, scroll-like bones that form the lower part of the interior of the nasal cavity.

Mandible
the strong, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw.
located on the lungual side of the ramus of the mandible; permits nerve and vessels passage.

Vomer
a single bone that forms the lower posterior part of the nasal septum.

Auditory Ossicles
small bones in the ear, are not considered bones of the face or cranium, they are present in the head or skull.

Malleus
largest of the three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the ear mallet.

Incus
one of the three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the anvil.

Stapes
one of the three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the stirrup.

Hyoid
a horseshoe-shaped bone lying at the base of the tongue.

Sinus
air pocket or cavity in a bone that lightens the bone, warms the air intake, and helps form sounds.

Suture
a line where 2 or more bones unite in an immovable joint.

Sagittal
the union line between the 2 parietal bones of the top of the skull.

Coronal
junction of the frontal and the parietal bones, this area is soft at birth and shortly afterward, and has been called the baby’s “soft spot” or fontanel (little fountain)

Lamboid
located between the parietal bone and the upper border of the occipital bone.

Temporoparietal
located between the temporal and parietal bones, also known as the squamous suture.

Posterior nasal spine
located in the upper arch between the nasal bone and superior maxilla.

Median palatine suture
the union between the palatine bones.

Incisive suture
located in the anterior area of the pre-maxilla and palatine processes.

Nasion
a point where the nasofrontal suture is cut across by the middle plane of the skull.

Process
a projection or outgrowth of bone or tissue.

Symphysis
center of the mandible, forms the chin, and is called the mental protuberance (projection).

Alveolar
bone growth or border of the maxilla and the mandible; makes up and forms the tooth sockets.

Condyloid
posterior growth on the ramus of the mandible; articulates with the temporal bone in the temporomandibular joint.

Ramus
ascending part of the mandible.

Coronoid
anterior growth on the ramus of the mandible that serves as the attachment position for the temporalis muscle.

Infraorbital
growth process from the zygomatic bone that articulates with the maxilla to form the lower side of the eye orbit.

Mastoid
growth on the temporal bone behind the ear that is used for muscle attachment.

Pterygoid
wing shaped; growth of the sphenoid bone extending downward from the bone.

Pterygoid hamulus
a hook-like end that serves as a site for muscle attachment.

Styloid
small, pointed growth from the lower border of the temporal bone; serves as a bone position for attachment of some tongue muscles.

Foramen
an opening or hole in the bone for nerve and vessel passage.

External auditory meatus
a large opening in the temporal bone used for the passage of auditory nerves and vessels.

Magnum
opening in the occipital bone for spinal cord passage.

Mental
latin for chin; opening situated on left and right anterior areas of the mandible; used for passage of nerve and vessels.

Lingual
small opening in the center of the mental spine for nerve passage to the incisor area.

Incisive
an opening in the maxilla behind the central incisors on the midline.

Supraorbital
an opening in the frontal bone above the eye orbit.

Infraorbital
an opening in the maxilla under the eye orbit.

Palatine
anterior and posterior openings in the hard palate.

Zygomaticofacial
an opening in the zygomatic bone.

Periosteum
fibrous membrane lining on all oral mouth tissue surfaces.

Mucoperiosteum
mucous lining covering tissues in mouth.

Lining mucosa
mucous membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the lips and the cheeks.

Masticatory mucosa
elastic type of mucous membrane that undergoes stress and pull; located around the alveolar area of the teeth and lines the hard palate.

Specialized mucosa
smoother mucous tissue found on the dorsal side of the tongue.

Angle of the mandible
area along the lower edge of the mandible where the upward curve of the mandible forms.

Sigmoid notch
S-shaped curvature between the condyle and coronoid processes.

Mylohyoid ridge
bony ridge on the lingual surface of the mandible.

Oblique line
slanted, bony growth ridge on the facial side of the mandible.

Retromolar area
the space located to the rear of the mandibular molars.

Mandibular notch
and indentation on the lower border of the mandible, near the angle where the ramus starts into its upright position.

Articulates
comes together

Condyle
posterior process of the mandible ; part of the temporomandibular joint.

Glenoid or mandibular fossa
depression in the temporal bone; location of the condyle.

Articular eminence
forms the anterior boundary of the fossa and helps maintain the mandible in position.

Meniscus
articular disc located between TMJ bones.

Synovial fluid
cushions and lubricates the joint as it works in a hinge action movement.

Masseter
the muscle that closes the mouth. the principal mastication muscle.

Internal pterygoid
muscle that raises the mandible to close the jaw.

External pterygoid
muscle that opens the jaw and thrusts the mandible forward; assists with lateral movement.

Orbicularic oris
also known as the “kissing muscle” a circular muscle surrounding the mouth that compacts, compresses, and protrudes the lips.

Buccinator
principal cheek muscle; compresses the cheek, expels air through the lips, and aids in food mastication.

Mentalis
muscle of the chin (mental) that moves the chin tissue and raises or lowers the lower lip.

Trigeminal
the most important nerve connected with dentistry. the 5th cranial nerve.

Gasserian ganglion
nerve bundle or union center of trigeminal nerve branches.

Lacrimal
provides sensation for the lacrimal gland and eye conjunctiva.

Frontal
provides sensation for the forehead, scalp, upper eyelid, and nasal root.

Nasociliary
provides sensation for nose, eye, and eyebrow.

Anterior palatine
provides sensation for the hard palate, periosteum, and mucous membrane for molars and premolar teeth.

Middle palatine
provides sensation for the soft palate, the uvula, and the upper or soft part of the palate.

Posterior palatine
provides sensation for the tonsils and the soft palate.

Nasopalatine
provides sensation for the nose and the palate.

Anterior
provides sensation to maxillary central, laterals, and canines.

Middle
provides sensation to the maxillary premolars and the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary 1st molar.

Posterior
provides sensation to the maxillary 2nd and 3rd molar, and to the remaining roots of the maxillary 1st molar.

Zygomatic
provides sensation to the lacrimal and upper cheek area.

Sphenopalatine
sensory nerve ending for the maxillary anterior mucosal and palatine tissues.

Inferior alveolar
provides sensation to the mandibular teeth.

Mylohyoid
provides sensation to some muscles in the floor of the mouth.

Mental
provides sensation to the skin of chin and the lowe lip.

Incisive
provides sensation to the anterior teeth and alveoli.

Lingual
provides some sensation to the tongur and causes some movement.

Buccal
provides sensation to the buccal gingiva and mucosa.

Carotid artery
rises from the aorta right and left and divides in the neck to form 2 arteries.

Internal carotid
blood supply to the brain and eyes.

External carotid
branches to the throat, face, and ears.

Infraorbital
provides blood to the maxillary anterior teeth.

Inferior alveolar
provides blood to the mandibular teeth.

Facial
provides blood to the face, tonsils, palate, and submandibular gland.

Lingual
divides into branches to serve the tongue, tonsils, soft palate, and throat.

Maxillary
provides blood to the maxillary teeth.

Jugular vein
transports blook from the head to the heart.

Facial division
carries blood from the face structures.

Maxillary division
carries blood from the maxillary region.

Pterygoid venus plexus
collects the blood supply from the head.

Capillaries
tiny blood vessels that help to transport blood from the veins to the arteries.

Serum or Mucin
watery fluid; sticky, slimy secretion that form mucous.

Enzymes
body produced chemicals to digest food.

Parotid
the larges salivary gland, located near the ear; produces serus saliva, which empties into the mouth near the maxillary 2nd molar through the Stenson’s duct.

Submandibular
a smaller gland located on the lower side of the face that secretes mucin and serus fluids with enzymes; empties through the Warton’s, or submandibular, duct openings under the tongue on each side of the lingual frenum.

Sublingual
smallest major salivary gland, situated in the floor of the mouth; secretes mucin through multiple ducts; many other small glands are nearby, functioning to keep the mouth tissues moist.

Lymph
vessels that transport lymph fluid of plasma, water, and waste products.

Lymph capillaries
tiny vessels or tubes that carry lymph fluid.

Lymph node
a mass of lymph cells forming a unit of lymphatic tissue that are named after the formation site.

Axillary
Lymph nodes located under the armpit.

Cervical
Lymph nodes located in the neck.

Inguinal
Lymph nodes found in the abdomen.

Tonsil
a lymphatic tissue found in the posteror of the throat between the anterior and posterior fauces and on the back on the tongue.

Adenoid
lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx area; may provide protection similar to tonsils.

Antibody
protein material, manufactures by the body, that destroys antigens; basis for the immune response.

Antigen
foreign, pathogenic substances introduced into or produced by the body.

Lymphocytes
lymph cells that assist in body defenses.
2 major types:
B-lymphocytes- produce antibodies to destroy antigens.
T-lymphocytes- also called T-cells; produced in the thymus; assist with the immune system to destroy foreign cells and pathogens.

Immunoglobulin
plasma-made proteins, produces in lymph tissue, that are capable of acting as antibodies in the immune response.

Interferon
proteins produces by cells exposed to viruses; help to provide immunity to unaffected cells.

Phagocytes
white blood cells that ingest and destroy antigens in a process called phagocytosis.

Macrophages
large phagocyte cells that ingest anigens and inflammatory bodies.

Microphanges
neutrophilic cells that ingest smaller matter, such as bacteria.

Superior oris
upper lip

Inferium oris
lower lip

Labial commissure
area at the corners of the mouth where the lips meet.

Vermillion border
area where the pink-red lip tissue meets the facial skin.

Philtrum
median groove in the center external surface of the upper lip.

Caruncle
small, fleshy mucous tissue elevations under the tongue.

Frenum
tissue fold attachment that connects 2 parts.

Labial frenum
tissue that attaches the inside of the lip to the mucous membrane in the anterior of the oral cavity.

Lingual frenum
attaches the lower side of the tongue to the floor membrane.

Ankyloglossia
“tongue-tied”; when the lingual frenum is too short, this can occur.

Buccal frenum
attaches the inside of the cheek to the oral cavity in the maxillary 1st molar area.

Median sulcus
groove, depression; divides the tongue’s top surface into 2 parts.

Papillae
tissue growtths; taste buds.

Dorsal
top surface of the tongue.

Circumvallate
the larges, v-shaped papillae, situated on the dorsal aspect of the tongue.

Filiform
the smallest, hair-like papillae covering the entire dorsal aspect of the tongue. do not sense taste.

Fungiform
small, dark-red papillae on the middle and anterior dorsal surface and along the sides of the tongue.

Foliate
on the posterior lateral borders of the tongue, and can be seen if the tongue is grasped with gauze and extended.

Palate
roof of mouth

Hard palate
composed of the palatine processes of the maxillae bones; covered with mucous membrane and has rugae.

Rugae
irregular folds or bumps on the surface.

Incisive papilla
tissue growth situated at the anterior portion of the palate behind the maxillary centrals; site for infiltration injection of local anesthesia.

Palatine raphe
ridge between the union of 2 halves; white streak in the middle of the palate.

Soft palate
flexible portion of the palate; area where the gag reflex is present.

Uvula
tissue structure hanging from the palate in the posterior of the oral cavity.

Vestibule
open gum area between the teeth and the cheek.

Fauces
constricted opening or passage leading from the mouth to the oral pharynx, bound by the soft palate, the base of the tongue, and the palatine arches.

Glossopaltine arch
anterior pillars.

Pharyngopalatine
posterior pillars.

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