Sociology chapter 7 and beyond

There are ____ phases in the adult female development:
three

The whole phase of early adulthood is also known as the novice phase.
F

The age 30 transition can be a difficult period because
all of the above

In the study conducted by Daniel Levinson, midlife transition was a period of moderate to severe crisis.
T

Phase III of female development reveals that
both a and b

The greatest stresses of adulthood are during the
early adult transition, entering the adult world, the age 30 transition, the settling down period, and the midlife transition.

The first stage of the middle adulthood era, called the midlife transition, serves as the bridge between early and middle adulthood.
T

The settling down period, the first stage of early adulthood, is called “making it” in the adult world.
F

Which group holds slightly more than half of the professional jobs in the United States?
women

Changes in the American labor force since 1970 reveal all of the following EXCEPT
over one half of the labor force has a college degree.

Control over job responsibilities has a positive correlation to job satisfaction.
t

Which of the following has not been a major change in the workforce within the last century?
greater emphasis on farming and manufacturing jobs

In today’s labor force, workers are waiting longer to retire.
t

Today, it is typical to change professions how many times in a lifetime?
5-6

A vast majority of workers today have a college degree.
f

Job satisfaction
varies according to income and age.

Among the topics studied by gerontologists for the young-old, ages 65-74, adjustment to retirement is one of the most important developmental issues.
t

Alzheimer’s disease is not a progressive deterioration of the brain cells.
f

Research indicates all of the following EXCEPT:
people who were happy or fulfilled in their work rarely find retirement satisfying.

Retirees adjust better to their new situation if they remain linked to the larger social world to which they belong.
t

Researchers now believe that most elderly people
retain their intellectual abilities throughout life.

ages 65 – 74
young-old

ages 40-59
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD

age 75 – 84
middle-old

common American jobs held
The most commonly held jobs are managerial and professional specialty jobs and more men hold these type of jobs than females.

The interactionist perspective looks at how the interaction between individuals influence deviance.
T

The suspension of moral beliefs to commit deviant acts is a
technique of neutralization

____ explains deviance as a learned behavior.
Cultural transmission theory

Conflict theorist believe that
both a and b

The concepts of culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving these goals was devised by
Robert K. Merton.

Differential association refers to the frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals.
T

Behavior that violates significant social norms is called
deviant

People who use innovation do not accept the cultural goals of their society but do accept the approved means for achieving these goals.
F

It is suggested that deviance has the following uses in social life:
all of the above

The interactionist perspective focuses on
all above

People with power commit deviant acts to obtain economic rewards.
F

Like strain theory, control theory explains deviance as a natural occurrence.
t

Innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion employ deviant behavior.
T

In a ____, a person is assigned a status at birth and remains at that level throughout life.
caste system

The division of society into categories, ranks, or classes is called
social stratification

American society is based on the caste system.
f

Workers who sell their labor in exchange for wages.
proletariat

In a class system, the distribution of scarce resources and rewards is determined on the basis of achieved status.
t

The subjective method is used to define social class by income, occupation, and education.
F

Social classes in the United States are usually divided into three classes—upper class, middle class, and lower class.
T

____ individuals can attend prestigious schools and their families have usually been wealthy for generations.
upper class

nursing and sales are professions associated with this social class
lower middle

social class that is comprised of migrant farm workers
working poor

Intergenerational mobility is the status difference between generations in different families.
F

The reputational method is always the best method for determining social class.
F

Underclass families have experienced unemployment and poverty over several generations.
T

Individuals that are primarily high-income business people and professionals are
upper middle

social class that relies on public assistance
underclass

Conflict theorists see competition over scarce resources as
the cause of social inequality.

Advances in technology can cause workers with outdated skills to experience _____.
Downward social mobility

Which of the following is not considered to be an ethnic group?
Mongoloid

Collective discrimination is
a negative bias against an entire group.

Racial stratification is almost extinct, thanks to reform attempts.
F

There are no biologically pure races.
T

Scapegoating—placing the blame for one’s troubles on an innocent individual or group—is a sociological explanation of discrimination and prejudice.
F

Segregation based on informal norms is ______.
de facto

Segregation based on laws is called _____
de jure

A group is considered incapable of understanding technical training, and thus is denied technical training. This group is then unable to gain employment in technical fields. Taking this lack of employment in technical fields as evidence of the group’s inability to understand technical information is a self-fulfilling prophecy.
T

African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians have all faced the same levels of discrimination and prejudice.
F

A form of discrimination that is upheld by the law is called _____.
legal

The apartheid system in South Africa was an example of legal discrimination.
T

All of the following are sources of prejudice and discrimination EXCEPT:
subjugation

Competition for jobs produced physical violence and discrimination
Asian Americans

During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, immigrants from predominantly Catholic countries faced open discrimination at the hands of the American-born white Protestant majority.
T

Face many challenges, including suicide and alcohol-related deaths.
American Indians

Immigrants in the 1900s were mainly from
Southern and Eastern Europe.

Denial of equal treatment to individuals based on their group membership.
discrimination

The belief that one’s own race or ethnic group is superior to other races or ethnic groups.
racism

South Africa practiced subjugation.
T

The confinement of Japanese Americans to relocation camps during World War II is an example of
population transfer

How do children learn gender role behaviors?
through socialization

The family is the most powerful agent of gender socialization.
T

One result of the second shift is that
women, on average, have less leisure time than men.

Women make up 52 percent of the voting-age population.
T

A new development in the political arena is that more women are holding statewide positions, which has increased from four percent in years past to twenty-nine percent.
T

Which of the following is NOT a result of the women’s rights movement?
the Civil Rights Act of 1964

In 1972 the Equal Rights Amendment was formed and was ratified by 38 states.
T

Which of the following is a cause of the challenges to Social Security?
longer life expectancies

Where would you be more likely to find proper health care?
wealthy urban area

According to the article, “President Bush Proposes Health Savings Accounts,” about 46 million of the U.S. population are uninsured.
T

In just two decades, AIDS has become one of the most serious public health problems in the United States and worldwide.
T

In the year 2000, it was reported that health care costs exceeded
1.3 trillion

The behavioral and psychological traits considered appropriate for men and women.
gender

How many people in the United States are affected with disabilities?
53 mil

The elderly in the United States have become
a political force

In theory, there are three possible patterns of authority in families.
T

Which of the following describes a family where the mother and the father share authority?
egalitarian

When a woman is permitted to marry more than one man at a time.
polyandry

Family consisting of an individual, his or her spouse, and their children.
family of procreation

Kinship traced through the mother’s family is called
matrilineal descent

The family form most recognizable to Americans.
nuclear family

What do most sociologist argue is the most-devastating family disruption?
family violence

Today in the United States it is not at all uncommon for a woman to have her first child at what age?
30

More than half of American schools report at least one serious, violent incident per year.
F

The educational issues facing the United States in the early 2000s include
educational reform

The assignment of students to different types of educational programs is considered
tracking

The following groups are more likely to participate regularly in religious services:
African Americans, women, and older citizens

The “opium of the people” idea refers to the theory that religion encourages people to accept their social conditions because rewards await them in the afterlife.
T

Belief systems can be organized into three basic types
animism, theism, ethicalism.

The following is not a goal included in the Goals 2000: Educate America Act:
the number of high-school graduates will rise to 80 percent or more

Under this program, parents may receive a voucher equal to the amount their state spends on education for their child.
school choice

A new religion whose beliefs and practices differ from those of the society?s major religions.
cult

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are examples of
monotheistic

The four factors that contributed to the rebirth of science are the decline of the Roman empire, the influence of the Catholic church, the Protestant Reformation, and the invention of the printing press.
F

Science emerged as a recognizable system of study in 800s B.C.
F

The central ideal of industrialization was maintaining “status quo.”
F

What is the sociology of science?
The sociological investigation of how scientific knowledge develops.

The Age of Enlightenment supported
reason over religious beliefs.

What is the Matthew effect?
A tendency for honors and recognition to go to those scientists who have already achieved recognition

A paradigm, as described by Thomas S. Kuhn,
determines the topics of scientific inquiry and shapes the interpretations of data.

Respected individuals in the community who review and evaluate media messages and then pass the information to friends and acquaintances are called
opinion leaders

The belief that all scientific knowledge should be made available to everyone in the scientific community.
communalism

Idea that scientific research should be judged solely on the basis of quality.
universalism

Fertility is
the actual number of births occurring to women of childbearing age.

The biological capability to bear children.
fecundity

The demographic transition theory helps explain
how population change is related to the technological development of a society.

Model that describes cities as growing in wedge-shaped sectors outward from the center to the edge of the city.
sector model

Model that describes a city as developing around several centers of activity.
multiple nuclei model

The subcultural theory explains the nature of city life.
T

According to urban anomie theory the impersonal nature of city life extends to situations that do not call for social involvement.
F

During the 1920s and 1930s, sociologists interested in urban life developed an approach to the study of cities called ⇒ urban ecology.
urban ecology

In many of the less developed nations, the rapid growth of cities has led to ⇒ over urbanization.
over urbanization

English economist Thomas R. Malthus predicted that there would not be any problems resulting from population growth.
F

The contagion theory describes how
emotions encourage people toward collective action.

Equilibrium theory appeals to some sociologists because it explains
how societies are able to change yet maintain order.

Class conflict has not resulted in revolution in most modern industrial societies.
t

According to Karl Marx, social change results from the efforts of
the powerless to gain power.

Pitirim Sorokin’s belief that societies have a natural tendency toward social change is called
PRINCIPLE of imminent change

Culture in which truth and knowledge are sought through faith or religion.
ideational

⇒ Social change is the result of the natural tendency for societies to pass through stages of development.

Modern theories of social change suggest that all societies follow similar patterns of development.
F

Cyclical theories of social change gain popularity during periods of extreme social turmoil.
T

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