201 Drugs broken down

Heparin (Class, indications, action)

Class: Anticoagulants; antithrombolitis- HIGH ALERT

Indications: Prophylaxis and treatment of various thromboembolic disorders

Action: Potentiates the inhibitory effect of antithrombin on factor Xa and thrombin.

Heparin Side Effects/Reactions

S/E: alopecia (long-term use), rashes, urticaria, pain at injection site, osteoporosis.

Adverse Reactions: bleeding, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

Heparin Nursing Implications
Assess for signs of bleeding and hemorrhage.
Assess patient for evidence of additional or increased thrombosis.
Monitor patient for hypersensitivity reactions (chills, fever, urticaria).
Monitor activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and hematocrit
Do not take in conjuntion with Nsaids such as Aspirin, or other thrombolytic.
Use an infusion pump to ensure accuracy.
ANTIDOTE: Protamine Sulfate
Nitroprusside (indications)

Class: (Anti HTN; Vasodilator) HIGH ALERT

Indications: Hypertensive crises. Controlled hypotension during anesthesia. Cardiac pump failure or cardiogenic shock

Nitroprusside side effects
S/E: dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, nausea Adverse Reactions: Cyanide toxicity
Nitroprusside Nursing Interventions
Nursing Interventions: Monitor BP, HR, ECG during therapy
Monitor for rebound HTN following discontinuation of nitroprusside.
Monitor plasma thiocyanate levels daily. A
dvise patient to report the onset of tinnitus, dyspnea, dizziness, headache, or blurred vision immediately.
ANTIDOTE: Sodium Nitrate.
Alprazolam (name, class, action, indications)
Trade name: Xanax
Class: Benzodiazapine; Antidepressant
Indications: (GAD). Panic disorder. Anxiety associated with depression.
Action: Acts at many levels in the CNS to produce anxiolytic effect. May produce CNS depression.
Alprazolam Side Effects
XANAX
S/E: dizziness, drowsiness, lethargy, D, N, V, weight gain, physical dependence
Alprazolam Nursing Implications
Assess degree and manifestations of anxiety and mental status, May be administered with food if GI upset occurs
ANTIDOTE: Flumazenil.
Lorazepam (name, class, indication, action)
Name: Ativan
Class: enzodiazepine; antidepressant
Indications: Anxiety, Pre-op sedation.
Action: Depresses the CNS Sedation. Decreased anxiety. Decreased seizures.
Lorazepam Side Effects
ATIVAN
S/E: dizziness, drowsiness, lethargy,respiratory depression, D, N, V. Adverse Reactions: apnea, cardiac arrest.
Lorazepam Nursing Implications
ATIVAN
Nursing Implications: Following parenteral administration, keep patient supine for at least 8 hr and observe closely.
IV Administration at a rate not to exceed 2 mg/min or 0.05 mg/kg over 2-5 min.
Rapid IV administration may result in apnea, hypotension, bradycardia, or cardiac arrest.
Escitalopram (name, class, indications, action)
Name: Lexapro
Class: SSRI; antidepressants
Indications: Major depressive disorder. GAD. Panic disorder. OCD. PTSD. social phobia. PMDD.
Action: Selectively inhibits the reuptake of serotonin in the CNS.
Escitalopram Side Effects
LEXAPRO
S/E: insomnia, N,D,V, dry mouth. Adverse Reactions: neuroleptic malignant syndrome, suicidal thoughts, serotonin syndrome.
Escitalopram Nursing Implications
LEXAPRO
Nursing Implications: May cause serious, potentially fatal reactions when used with MAO inhibitors discontinue 14 prior. Taper to avoid potential withdrawal reactions. Administer as a single dose in the morning or evening without regard to meals.
Imipramine (name, class, indications, action)
Name: Tofranil
Class: Tricyclic Antidepressant
Indications: Depression, Enuresis in Children.
Action: Potentiates effects of serotonin & norepinephrine. Has significant anticholinergic properties.
Imipramine Side Effects
TOFRANIL
S/E: ddrowsiness, fatigue,blurred vision, dry eyes, hypotension, constipation, dry mouth. Adverse Reactions: suicidal thoughts, arrhythmias.
Imipramine Nursing Implications
TOFRANIL
Nursing Implications: Monitor BP and pulse rate, Assess for suicidal tendencies, Taper to avoid withdrawal effects. Administer medication with or immediately following a meal to minimize GI Upset. Notify health care professional if visual changes occur, urinary retention, dry mouth, or constipation persists, avoid alcohol, use sunscreen and protective clothing to prevent photosensitivity, urine may turn blue-green.
Marplan (class, indications, action)
Class: antidepressants; MAOI
Indications: Treatment of depression
Action: Inhibits the enzyme monoamine oxidase, resulting in an accumulation of various neurotransmitters.
Marplan Side Effects
S/E: dizziness, HA, blurred vision, nausea. Adverse Reactions: seizures, hypertensive crisis, may occur with concurrent use of other antidepressants (SSRIs, SSNRIs, bupropion, tricyclics, tetracyclics, nefazodone, trazodone)
Marplan Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess mental status, mood changes, and anxiety level Monitor BP and pulse rate before and frequently during therapy. Report significant changes, avoid alcohol, CNS depressants, OTC drugs, and foods or beverages containing tyraminecaffeinenotify health care professional immediately if symptoms of hypertensive crisis
Morphine (class, indications, actions)
(Opioid Analesic) HIGH ALERT MED
Indications: Severe pain, Pulmonary edema. Pain associated with MI.
Action: Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS. Alters the perception of and response to painful stimuli while producing generalized CNS depression. circulatory collapse.
Morphine Side Effects
S/E: confusion, sedation, hypotension, constipation. Adverse Reactions: respiratory depression.
Morphine Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess type, location, and intensity of pain prior to and 1 hr following admin. Assess level of consciousness, BP, pulse, and respirations. If respiratory rate is <10/min, assess level of sedation. Physical stimulation may be sufficient to prevent significant hypoventilation. Doses may be administered with food or milk to minimize GI irritation. Admin 2.5-15 mg over 5 min. Rapid admin may lead to increased respiratory depression, hypot, and circulatory collapse.
Ondansetron (name, class, indication, action)
Name: Zofran
Class: antiemetic
Indications: Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.
Action: Blocks the effects of serotonin. Decreased incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting.
Ondansetron Side Effects
ZOFRAN
S/E: HA, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dry mouth, Adverse Reactions: torsade de pointes.
Ondansetron Nursing Implications
ZOFRAN
Nursing Implications: Assess patient for NV, abd distention, and bowel sounds. Monitor ECG in patients with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, HF, bradyarrhythmias, or patients taking concomitant medications that prolong the QT interval. First dose is admin prior to emetogenic event. Administer over at least 30 sec and preferably over 2-5 min.
Oprelvekin (name, class, indications, action)
Name: Numega
Class: Growth factor/colony stimulating factors; interleukins
Indications: Prevention of severe thrombocytopenia and reduction of the need for platelet transfusions. Action: Stimulates production of megakaryocytes and platelets.
Numega side effects
OPRELVEKIN
S/E: dizziness, headache, insomnia, nervousness, weakness. conjunctival hemorrhage,cough, dyspnea, pleural effusions, trial fibrillation, edema, palpitations, syncope, tachycardia, oral moniliasis, vomiting, alopecia, ecchymoses, rash, bone pain, myalgia, chills, fever, infection, pain. Adverse Reactions: ventricular arrhythmias.
Numega Nursing Actions
OPRELVEKIN
Nursing Implications: Assess patient for signs of fluid retention. Monitor platelet count. Therapy is continued until postnadir platelet count is ≥50,000 cells/mL. Reconstitute with 1 mL of sterile water for injection without preservatives for a concentration of 5 mg/mL.
Methotrexate (class, indications, action)
Name: Trexall
Class: antineoplastics; antirheumatics (DMARDs) immunosuppressants) HIGH ALERT MED
antirheumatics (DMARDs) immunosuppressants) HIGH ALERT MED
Indications: treatment of Trophoblastic neoplasms.
Action: Interferes with folic acid metabolism. Result is inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell reproduction immunosuppressive activity.
Methotrexate Side Effects
S/E: arachnoiditis, anorexia, hepatotoxicity, nausea, stomatitis, vomiting, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nephropathy. Adverse Reactions: pulmonary fibrosis, aplastic anemia.
Methotrexate Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor for symptoms of pulmonary toxicity, Reconstitute each vial with 25 mL of 0.9% NaCl. Admin at a rate of 10 mg/min. Notify health care professional promptly if fever; chills; cough; hoarseness; sore throat; signs of infection; lower back or side pain; painful or difficult urination; bleeding gums; bruising; petechiae; blood in stools, urine, or emesis; increased fatigue; dyspnea; or orthostatic hypotension occurs. Avoid crowds and persons with known infections. Use soft toothbrush and electric razor and to avoid falls. Do not to drink alcoholic beverages or take medication containing aspirin or other NSAIDs, use sunscreen and protective clothing.
Doxorubicin (name, class, indication, action)
Name: Adriamycin
Class: antineoplastics; anthracyclines- HIGH ALERT MED
Indications: Tx of various solid tumors. Action: Inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis by forming a complex with DNA.
Adriamycin Side effects
DOXORUBICIN
S/E: NVD, esophagitis, stomatitis, red urine, alopecia, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, phlebitis. Adverse Reactions: cardiomyopathy
Adriamycin Nursing Implications
DOXORUBICIN
Nursing Implications: Monitor vitals, Monitor for bone marrow depression, Monitor for development of signs of cardiac toxicity, Dilute each 10 mg with 5 mL of 0.9% NaCl, Admin each dose over 3-5 minutes, notify health care professional promptly if fever; sore throat; signs of infection; bleeding gums; bruising; petechiae; blood in stools, urine, or emesis; increased fatigue; dyspnea; or orthostatic hypotension occurs. Avoid crowds and persons with known infections. Do not drink alcoholic beverages or take medication containing aspirin or NSAIDs, report pain at injection site immediately. notify health care professional immediately if irregular heartbeat, SOB, swelling of lower extremities, or skin irritation occurs.
Darbepoetin (name, class, indication, action)
Name: Aranesp
Class: antianemics; hormones
Indications: Anemia associated with chronic kidney disease.
Action: Stimulates erythropoiesis.
Aranesp Side Effects
DARBEPOETIN
S/E: dizziness, fatigue, headache, cough, dyspnea, HTN, hypot, abd pain, NVD, myalgia, fever. Adverse Reactions: HF, mi, stroke, thromboembolic events.
Aranesp Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor BP, Monitor hemoglobin, Monitor renal function studies and electrolytes closely, Institute seizure precautions in patients who experience greater than a 1.0 g/dL increase in hemoglobin in a 2-wk period or exhibit any change in neurologic status. May be admin as direct injection or bolus over 1-3 min. Notify HCP if chest pain; SOB; pain in legs; a cool or pale arm or leg; sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or trouble understanding others’ speech; sudden numbness or weakness in face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of body; sudden trouble seeing; sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination; loss of consciousness or hemodialysis vascular access stops working.
Cisplatin (indication, class, action)
Antineoplastic -HIGH ALERT MED
Indications: Metastatic testicular and ovarian carcinoma. Advanced bladder cancer. Head and neck cancer. Cervical cancer. Lung cancer. Other tumors. Action: Inhibits DNA synthesis by producing cross-linking of parent DNA strands
Cisplatin Side Effects
S/E: ototoxicity, tinnitus, severe NV, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, anemia. Adverse Reactions: reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, seizures, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
Cisplatin Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor vital signs, Monitor I&O, Encourage pt to drink 2000-3000 mL/day, Assess for bleeding, Monitor for signs of anaphylaxis, Maximum rate 1 mg/min. Report pain at injection site immediately, notify HCP promptly if fever; chills; cough; hoarseness; sore throat; signs of infection; lower back or side pain; painful or difficult urination; bleeding gums. Avoid crowds and persons with known infections. Use soft toothbrush and electric razor. Do not drink alcohol or take medication containing aspirin or NSAIDs.
Magnesium citrate indications, actions
Indications: Laxative.
Action: Essential for the activity of many enzymes. Play an important role in neurotransmission and muscular excitability.
Magnesium Citrate side effects
S/E: diarrhea, flushing, sweating.
Magnesium Citrate Nursing implications
Nursing Implications: Assess pt for abd distention, presence of bowel sounds, and usual pattern of bowel function. Assess color, consistency, and amount of stool produced. Admin on empty stomach for more rapid results. Advise patient not to take this medication within 2 hr of taking other medications, notify HCP if unrelieved constipation, rectal bleeding, or symptoms of electrolyte imbalance.
Lactulose
Laxative
Indications: Treatment of chronic constipation.
Action: Increases water content and softens the stool.
Lactulose Side Effects
S/E: belching, cramps, distention, flatulence.
Lactulose Nursing implications
Nursing Implications: Assess pt for abd distention, presence of bowel sounds, and usual pattern of bowel function. Assess color, consistency, and amount of stool produced. Mix with fruit juice, water, milk, or carbonated citrus beverage to improve flavor. Administer with a full glass (240 mL) of water or juice.
Docusate Sodium (name, class, indication, action)
Name: Colace
Class: Stool Softener
Indications: Prevention of constipation
Action: Promotes incorporation of water into stool, resulting in softer fecal mass.
Docusate Sodium Side Effects
S/E: throat irritation, mild cramps, diarrhea, rashes.S/E: throat irritation, mild cramps, diarrhea, rashes.
Docusate Sodium Nursing implications
Nursing Implications: Assess pt for abd distention, presence of bowel sounds, and usual pattern of bowel function. Assess color, consistency, and amount of stool produced. Admin with a full glass of water or juice
Loperamide (name, class, action, indication)
Name: Immodium
Class: Antidiarrheal
Indications: Adjunctive therapy of acute diarrhea. Action: Inhibits peristalsis and prolongs transit time by a direct effect on nerves in the intestinal muscle wall
Immodium side effects
LOPERAMIDE
S/E: drowsiness, constipation, dry mouth, NV.
Immodium Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess frequency and consistency of stools and bowel sounds. Admin with clear fluids to help prevent dehydration, avoid using alcohol and other CNS depressants concurrently with this medication, notify HCP if diarrhea persists or if fever, abd pain, or distention occurs.
Aspirin (class, indication, action)
Class: antipyretics; non-opioid analgesics; salicylates
Indications: Inflammatory disorders
Action: Produce analgesia and reduce inflammation and fever by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins.
Aspirin Side Effects
S/E: dyspepsia, epigastric distress, nausea.
Aspirin Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess pain, Instruct patient to take salicylates with a full glass of water and to remain in an upright position for 15-30 min after admin. Report tinnitus; unusual bleeding of gums; bruising; black, tarry stools; or fever lasting longer than 3 days. Avoid concurrent use of alcohol with this medication.
Levothyroxine (class, indication, action)
Class: hormones; thyroid preparations
Indications: Thyroid supplementation in hypothyroidism. Treatment or suppression of euthyroid goiters.
Action: Replacement of or supplementation to endogenous thyroid hormones.
Levothyroxine Side Effects
S/E: HA, insomnia, irritability, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, tachycardia, abd cramps, DV.
Levothyroxine Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess apical pulse and BP. Administer as a single dose with a full glass of water. Reconstitute the 200-mcg and 500-mcg vials with 2 or 5 mL. Administer at a rate of 100 mcg over 1 min. Notify HCP if HA, nervousness, D, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, chest pain, increased pulse rate, palpitations, weight loss >2 lb/wk, or any unusual symptoms occur.
Desmopressin (class, indication, action)
Class: DDAVP// hormones; antidiuretic hormones
Indications: Tx of central diabetes insipidus caused by a deficiency of vasopressin. Nocturnal enuresis.
Action: An analogue of naturally occurring vasopressin.
Desmopressin Side Effects
S/E: drowsiness, HA, listlessness, dyspnea, mild abd cramps, N.
Adverse Reactions: Seizures
Desmopressin Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: IV: Administer undiluted. Rate: Administer over 1 min. Intermittent Infusion: Dilute each dose in 50 mL of 0.9% NaCl. Rate: Infuse slowly over 15-30 min. Notify HCP if bleeding is not controlled or if HA, dyspnea, heartburn, N, abd cramps, vulval pain, or severe nasal congestion or irritation occurs. Avoid concurrent use of alcohol.
Vasopressin (class, indication, action)
Class: hormones; antidiuretic hormones
Indications: Central diabetes insipidus due to deficient antidiuretic hormone.
Action: Alters the permeability of the renal collecting ducts, allowing reabsorption of water.
Vasopressin Side Effects
S/E: dizziness, “pounding” sensation in head, abd cramps, belching, D, flatulence, heartburn, NV. Adverse Reactions: MI.
Vasopressin Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor BP, HR, and ECG. Administer 1-2 glasses of water at the time of administration. Direct Intravenous: Administer undiluted. Rate: Administer over 1-2 sec during pulseless VT/VF, asystole, or PEA. Continuous Infusion: Dilute 100 units of vasopressin in 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl or D5W. Avoid concurrent use of alcohol
Diabinese (name, class, action, indication)
CHLORPROPAMIDE
Class: antidiabetics; sulfonylureas
Indications: Control of BS in type 2 diabetes mellitus when diet therapy fails. Requires some pancreatic function.
Action: Lowers BS by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas and increasing the sensitivity to insulin at receptor sites.
Diabinese Side Effects
S/E: anorexia, dizziness, HA, constipation, D,↑ appetite, NV, photosensitivity, hypoglycemia, SIADH, aplastic anemia.
Diabinese Nursing Implications
Monitor CBC. May be administered once in the morning or divided into 2 doses and take medication at same time each day. Use sunscreen and protective clothing to prevent photosensitivity reactions. Carry a form of sugar and ID describing disease process and medication regimen at all times. Notify HCP promptly if unusual weight gain, weakness, sore throat, rash, or unusual bleeding or bruising occurs.
Hydrocortisone (name, class, action, indication)
Name: Solu-Cortef, Cortef, Hycort
Class: steroidal anti-inflammatory agents; corticosteroids
Indications: Management of adrenocortical insufficiency.
Action: suppresses inflammation and the normal immune response
Hydrocortisone Side Effects
S/E: depression, euphoria, HTN, peptic ulceration, anorexia, N, acne, ↓ wound healing, ecchymoses, fragility, hirsutism, petechiae, adrenal suppression, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, cushingoid appearance. Adverse Reactions: peptic ulceration, thromboembolism, anaphylaxis.
Hydrocortisone Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor I&Os and daily weights. Promptly report presence of guaiac-positive stools. Administer with meals. Inform HCP promptly if severe abd pain or tarry stools occur. Report unusual swelling, weight gain, tiredness, bone pain, bruising, nonhealing sores, visual disturbances, or behavior changes.
Glucagon (class, indication, action)
Class: hormones; pancreatics
Indications: Acute management of severe hypoglycemia when admin of glucose is not feasible.
Action: Stimulates hepatic production of glucose from glycogen stores
Glucagon Side Effects
S/E: hypotension, NV. Adverse Reactions: anaphylaxis
Glucagon Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess for signs of hypoglycemia. Direct Intravenous: Reconstitute each vial with 1 mL of an appropriate diluent. Rate: Admin at a rate not exceeding 1 mg/min.
Cortisone (class, indication, action)
Class: steroidal anti-inflammatory agents; corticosteroids
Indications: Management of adrenocortical insufficiency.
Action: suppresses inflammation and the normal immune response.
Cortisone Side Effects
S/E: depression, euphoria, HTN, anorexia, nausea, acne, ↓ wound healing, ecchymoses, fragility, hirsutism, petechiae, adrenal suppression, avascular necrosis of joints, muscle wasting osteoporosis, cushingoid appearance. Adverse Reactions: peptic ulceration, thromboembolism.
Cortisone Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Promptly report presence of guaiac-positive stools. Inform HCP if severe abd pain or tarry stools occur report unusual swelling, weight gain, tiredness, bone pain, bruising, nonhealing sores, visual disturbances, or behavior changes.
Prednisone (name, class, action, indication)
Name: winipred
Class: steroidal anti-inflammatory agents; immune response modifiers
Indications: Used systemically and locally in a wide variety of chronic diseases.
Action: suppresses inflammation and the normal immune response
Prednisone Side Effects
S/E: depression, euphoria, HTN, anorexia, nausea, acne, ↓ wound healing, ecchymoses, fragility, hirsutism, petechiae, adrenal suppression, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, cushingoid appearance (moon-face). Adverse Reactions: peptic ulceration, thromboembolism
Prednisone Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Promptly report presence of guaiac-positive stools. Inform HCP promptly if severe abd pain or tarry stools occur. Report unusual swelling, weight gain, tiredness, bone pain, bruising, nonhealing sores, visual disturbances, or behavior changes.
Fludrocortisone (name, class, action, indication)
Class: Florinef
Class: hormones; corticosteroids
Indications: Sodium loss and hypotension associated with adrenocortical insufficiency.
Action: Causes sodium reabsorption, hydrogen and potassium excretion, and water retention by its effects on the distal renal tubule
Fludrocortisone Side Effects
FLORINEF
S/E: dizziness, HA, arrhythmias, edema,HTN, anorexia, N, hypokalemia, hypokalemic alkalosis. Adverse Reactions: HF.
Fludrocortisone Nursing Implications
FLORINEF
Nursing Implications: Monitor BP, weigh daily, assess for edema, and auscultate lungs. Inform HCP if weight gain or edema, muscle weakness, cramps, nausea, anorexia, or dizziness occurs.
Estrogen Congugated (name, class, indication, action)
Name: Premarin
Class: hormones; estrogens
Indications: Treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Action: Restoration of hormonal balance in various deficiency states and treatment of hormone-sensitive tumors.
Estrogen Side Effects
PREMARIN
S/E: HA, edema, HTN, N, weight changes, amenorrhea, breakthrough bleeding, dysmenorrhea, erectile dysfunction, testicular atrophyacne, oily skin, gynecomastia, breast tenderness, Adverse Reactions: MI, thromboembolism, anaphylaxis, angioedema.
Estrogen Nursing Implications
PREMARIN
Nursing Implicaitions: Assess BP, Monitor I&O, obtain weekly weight. Admin with or immediately after food to reduce nausea. Admin slowly (no faster than 5 mg/min) to prevent flushing. Report S/S of fluid retention or abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Tamoxifen (name, class, action, indication)
Name: Nolvadex
Class: antineoplastics; antiestrogens
Indications: Adjuvant therapy of breast cancer after surgery and radiation.
Action: Competes with estrogen for binding sites in breast and other tissues.
Tamoxifen Side Effects
NOLVADEX
S/E: nausea, hypercalcemia, hot flashes. Adverse Reactions: stroke, thromboembolism, uterine malignancies.
Tamoxifen Nursing Implications
NOLVADEX
Nursing Implications: Monitor CBC, platelets, and calcium levels Admin with food or fluids if GI irritation becomes a problem. Do not crush, break, chew, or administer an antacid within 1-2 hr of enteric-coated tablet. notify HCP promptly if pain or swelling of legs, SOB, weakness, sleepiness, confusion, NV, weight gain, dizziness, HA, loss of appetite, or blurred vision occurs. Patient should also report menstrual irregularities, vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure.
Metronidazole (name, class, action, indication)
Name: Flagyl
Class: anti-infectives; anti-protozoals; antiulcer agents
Indications: Tx of several anaerobic infections.
Action: Disrupts DNA and protein synthesis in susceptible organisms.
Metronidazole Side Effects
FLAGYL
S/E: dizziness, HA, aseptic meningitis, encephalopathy, abd pain, anorexia, N. Adverse Reactions: seizures, stevens-johnson syndrome.
Metronidazole Nursing Implications
FLAGYL
Nursing Implications: Assess for infection, Admin on an empty stomach, or may admin with food or milk to minimize GI irritation. Infuse over 30-60 min. Notify HCP promptly if rash occurs.
Latanoprost (name, class, indication, action)
Name: Xalatan
Class: Prostaglandin Agonists
Indications: Lowers IOP.
Action: Dilates blood vessels in the eye where the aqueous humor is reabsorbed.
Latanoprost Side Effects
XALATAN
S/E: blurry vision, pruritis, foreign body sensation, burning, elongated eyelashes. Adverse Reactions: Change in pigmentation in iris and eyelid, irritation, and inflammation.
Latanoprost Nursing Implications
XALATAN
Nursing Implications: Assess for corneal abrasions, Only treat affected eye.
Propine (name, class, action, indication)
Name: Dipivefrin hydrocholoride
Class: Adrenergic Agonists
Indications: Lowers IOP.
Action: Bind to receptors in the eye, reducing the amount of aqueous humor, dilates pupil
Propine Side Effects
Dipivefrin hydrocholoride
S/E: HA, burning, irritation, blurred vision, sensitivity to light (mydriatic effects).
Propine Nursing Implications
Dipivefrin hydrocholoride
Nursing Implications: wear sunglasses in and outdoors, do not use with contact lenses – wait 15 minutes after admin to put in lenses.
Timolol (class, indication, action)
Class: antihypertensives; vascular headache suppressants; Beta-Adrenergic Blockers
Indications: Hypertension, Prevention of MI. Prevention of migraine headaches.
Action: Blocks stimulation of beta1(myocardial)- and beta2(pulmonary, vascular, and uterine)-adrenergic receptor sites.
Timolol Side Effects
S/E: fatigue, weakness, erectile dysfunction. Adverse Reactions: arrhythmias, bradycardia, HF, pulmonary edema, anaphylaxis.
Timolol Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor BP and pulse, Monitor I&O and daily weight. Take apical pulse before administering. If <50 bpm or if arrhythmia occurs, withhold medication and notify HCP. Notify HCP if slow pulse, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cold hands and feet, dizziness, confusion, depression, rash, fever, sore throat, unusual bleeding, or bruising occurs.
Pilocarpine (class, indication, action)
Class: cholinergics
Indications: Management of xerostomia, which may occur as a consequence of radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck.
Action: Stimulates cholinergic receptors.
Pilocarpine Side Effects
S/E: HA, weakness, NV, flushing, sweating.
Pilocarpine Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess oral mucosa for dryness and ulceration drink adequate daily fluids (1500-2000 mL/day)
Brinzolamide (name, indication, action)
Name: Azopt
Indications: Reduce IOP.
Action: Inhibits productions of aqueous humor.
Brinzolamide side effects
AZOPT
S/E: blurred vision, bitter, sour or unusual taste, blepharitis, dermatitis, dry eye, foreign body sensation, HA, hyperemia, ocular discharge, ocular discomfort, ocular keratitis, ocular pain, ocular pruritus and rhinitis.
Brinzolamide Nursing Implications
AZOPT
Nursing Implications: Assess oral mucosa for dryness and ulceration, drink adequate daily fluids (1500-2000 mL/day).
Proparacaine (class, action, indication)
Class: topical anesthetic
Indications: Numbing the eye during certain procedures.
Action: Prevents initiation and transmission of impulse at the nerve cell membrane by decreasing ion permeability through stabilizing.
Proparacaine Side Effects
S/E: Blurred vision, redness, sensitivity to light, severe stinging in the eye, tearing, throbbing eye pain.
Proparacaine Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Do not use if discolored; protect eye from irritating chemicals, foreign bodies, and blink reflex; use eye patch if necessary
Prednisone as topical steriod
Class: steroidal anti-inflammatory agents; immune response modifiers
Indications: Used systemically and locally in a wide variety of chronic diseases.
Action: suppresses inflammation and the normal immune response.
Gentamicin (class, action, indication)
Class: anti-infectives; aminoglycosides
Indications: Tx of gram-negative bacterial infections and infections caused by staph.
Action: Inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria at level of 30S ribosome.
Gentamicin Side Effects
S/E: ataxia, vertigo, ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity.
Gentamicin Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess for infection. Monitor I&O and daily weight. Keep patient well hydrated (1500-2000 mL/day). Dilute each dose in 50-200 mL of D5W or 0.9% NaCl. Infuse slowly over 30 min-2 hr. Report signs of hypersensitivity, tinnitus, vertigo, hearing loss, rash, dizziness, or difficulty urinating.
Amikacin (class, action, indication)
Class: anti-infectives; aminoglycosides
Indications: Treatment of serious infections.
Action: Inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria at the level of the 30S ribosome.
Amikacin Side Effects
S/E: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity.
Amikacin Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess for infection. Monitor I&Os and daily weight. Keep patient well hydrated (1500-2000 mL/day). Dilute with D5W, D10W, 0.9% NaCl, dextrose/saline combinations, or LR. Infuse over 30-60 min. Report signs of hypersensitivity, tinnitus, vertigo, muscle weakness/twitching, feeling of fullness in the head, or hearing loss
Erythromycin (class, action, indication)
Class: anti-infectives; macrolides
Erythromycin (anti-infectives; macrolides)
Indications: Infections caused by susceptible organisms.
Action: Suppresses protein synthesis at the level of the 50S bacterial ribosome.
Erythromycin Side Effects
S/E: ototoxicity NV, phlebitis. Adverse Reactions: torsade de pointes, ventricular arrythmias, pseudomembranous colitis.
Erythromycin Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Assess for infection. Monitor bowel function. Diarrhea, abdominal cramping, fever, and bloody stools should be reported to HCP promptly. Add 10 mL of sterile water for injection without preservatives to 250- or 500-mg vials and 20 mL to 1-g vial. Administer slowly over 20-60 min to avoid phlebitis.
Furosemide (Name, class, action, indication)
Name: Lasix
Class: Loop diuretics — Agents used to treat cardiovascular disorders; diuretics
Indications: Edema due to CHF and hepatic or renal disease.
Action: Inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and chloride from the loop of Henle and distal renal tubule.
Furosemide Side Effects
S/E: HTN, hearing loss, tinnitus, hypotension, constipation, dry mouth, dyspepsia, NVD.
Furosemide Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor daily weight, I&O. Monitor BP and pulse. Assess the risk for falls. Administer medication in the morning so you won’t disturb the sleep cycle. Advise patient to turn positions slowly. Administer at a rate of 20 mg/min.
Epogen (name, class, action, indication)
Name: epoetin
Class: antianemics; hormones
Indications: Anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Action: Stimulates erythropoiesis.
Epogen Side Effects
S/E: HA, HTN. Adverse Reactions: seizures, CHF, MI, stroke, thromboembolic events.
Epogen Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor BP. Institute seizure precautions in patients who experience greater than a 4-point increase in hematocrit in a 2-wk period or exhibit any change in neurologic status. May be administered as direct injection or bolus over 1-3 minutes notify health care professional immediately if signs of blood clots
Hep B Vaccine indications
Indications: Prev. Hep B infections. Action: Antibodies (Passive Imm.) S/E: Dizzy, Malaise, Inj. site redness. Adverse Reactions: Anaphylactic Shock, Angioedema. Nursing Implications: Monitor anaphylactic S/S Hypotension, flushing, fever, N,V, diaphoresis
Hep B Vaccine Side Effects
S/E: Dizzy, Malaise, Inj. site redness. Adverse Reactions: Anaphylactic Shock, Angioedema.
Hep B Vaccine Nursing Implications
Nursing Implications: Monitor anaphylactic S/S Hypotension, flushing, fever, N,V, diaphoresis
Albumin (class, indication, action)
Class: volume expanders; blood products; colloids
Indications: For FVD, shock, hemorrhage, burns. Action: Provides colloidal pressure which forces fluid from EV tissues back to IV spaces.
Albumin Side Effects
S/E: HA, NV. Adverse Reactions: Pulmonary Edema.
Albumin Nursing Implications
.Nursing Implications: Monitor V/S, I&O, Wet lung sounds. Monitor blood values for bleeds, levels may ↓ due to hemodilution. IV ADMIN – Usually 30-60 min. STOP IMMEDIATELY & NOTIFY HCP = Fever, Tachy, Hypo occur

1) A nurse is caring for a client with hyperparathyroidism and notes that the client’s serum calcium level is 13 mg/dL. Which medication should the nurse prepare to administer as prescribed to the client? 1. Calcium chloride 2. Calcium gluconate …

A client’s fasting blood sugar (FBS) is 63 mg/dL (3.5 mmol/L) at 0700. The client is alert and oriented. What should the nurse do first? a) Give the prescribed dose of insulin. b) Give one ampule of 50% dextrose via …

Proventil (albuterol) is a bronchodilator used for prevention and long term treatment of asthma attacks. Inhaled agents have minimal side effects. Oral agents can cause tachycardia and angina. Advise clients to observe for signs and symptoms (chest, jaw, or arm …

Magnesium Sulfate ✓Trade Name: Epsom salt, magnesium sulfate ✓Classification: Electrolyte; anticonvulsant, laxative, saline; antacid ✓Dose/Route/Frequency for population being served: (breastfeeding) 335-350 mg/day; (pregnancy) 320 mg/day; PO 200-400 mg in divided doses tid-qid; IM 1 g q6hrs x 4 doses; IV …

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