Med Surg HESI Practice Questions

Which description of symptoms is characteristic of a client diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)?
A) Tinnitus, vertigo, and hearing difficulties.
B) Sudden, stabbing, severe pain over the lip and chin.
C) Facial weakness and paralysis.
D) Difficulty in chewing, talking, and swallowing.

B) Sudden, stabbing, severe pain over the lip and chin.

Trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by paroxysms of pain, similar to an electric shock, in the area innervated by one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial) (B). (A) would be characteristic of Méniére’s disease (8th cranial nerve). (C) would be characteristic of Bell’s palsy (7th cranial nerve). (D) would be characteristic of disorders of the hypoglossal cranial nerve (12th).

A 67-year-old woman who lives alone is admitted after tripping on a rug in her home and fractures her hip. Which predisposing factor probably led to the fracture in the proximal end of her femur?
A) Failing eyesight resulting in an unsafe environment.
B) Renal osteodystrophy resulting from chronic renal failure.
C) Osteoporosis resulting from hormonal changes.
D) Cardiovascular changes resulting in small strokes which impair mental acuity.

C) Osteoporosis resulting from hormonal changes.

The most common cause of a fractured hip in elderly women is osteoporosis, resulting from reduced calcium in the bones as a result of hormonal changes in later life (C). (A) may or may not have contributed to the accident, but it had nothing to do with the hip being involved. (B) is not a common condition of the elderly; it is common in chronic renal failure. (D) may occur in some people, but does not affect the fragility of the bones as osteoporosis does.

The nurse is assisting a client out of bed for the first time after surgery. What action should the nurse do first?
A) Place a chair at a right angle to the bedside.
B) Encourage deep breathing prior to standing.
C) Help the client to sit and dangle legs on the side of the bed.
D) Allow the client to sit with the bed in a high Fowler’s position.

D) Allow the client to sit with the bed in a high Fowler’s position.

The first step is to raise the head of the bed to a high Fowler’s position (D), which allow venous return to compensate from lying flat and vasodilating effects of perioperative drugs. (A, B, and C) are implemented after (D).

A 20-year-old female client calls the nurse to report a lump she found in her breast. Which response is the best for the nurse to provide?
A) Check it again in one month, and if it is still there schedule an appointment.
B) Most lumps are benign, but it is always best to come in for an examination.
C) Try not to worry too much about it, because usually, most lumps are benign.
D) If you are in your menstrual period it is not a good time to check for lumps.

B) Most lumps are benign, but it is always best to come in for an examination.

(B) provides the best response because it addresses the client’s anxiety most effectively and encourages prompt and immediate action for a potential problem. (A) postpones treatment if the lump is malignant, and does not relieve the client’s anxiety. (C and D) provide false reassurance and do not help relieve anxiety.

A female client is brought to the clinic by her daughter for a flu shot. She has lost significant weight since the last visit. She has poor personal hygiene and inadequate clothing for the weather. The client states that she lives alone and denies problems or concerns. What action should the nurse implement?
A) Notify social services immediately of suspected elderly abuse.
B) Discuss the need for mental health counseling with the daughter.
C) Explain to the client that she needs to take better care of herself.
D) Collect further data to determine whether self-neglect is occurring.

D) Collect further data to determine whether self-neglect is occurring.

Changes in weight and hygiene may be indicators of self-neglect or neglect by family members. Further assessment is needed (D) before notifying social services (A) or discussing a need for counseling (B). Until further information is obtained, explanations about the client’s needs are premature (C).

A client is admitted to the medical intensive care unit with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. The client’s history indicates the infarction occurred ten hours ago. Which laboratory test result should the nurse expect this client to exhibit?
A) Elevated LDH.
B) Elevated serum amylase.
C) Elevated CK-MB.
D) Elevated hematocrit.

C) Elevated CK-MB.

The cardiac isoenzyme CK-MB (C) is the most sensitive and most reliable indicator of myocardial damage of all the cardiac enzymes. It peaks within 12 to 20 hours after myocardial infarction (MI). (A) is a cardiac enzyme that peaks around 48 hours after an MI. (B) is expected with acute pancreatitis. (D) would be expected in a client with a fluid volume deficit, which is not a typical finding in MI.

A splint is prescribed for nighttime use by a client with rheumatoid arthritis. Which statement by the nurse provides the most accurate explanation for use of the splints?
A) Prevention of deformities.
B) Avoidance of joint trauma.
C) Relief of joint inflammation.
D) Improvement in joint strength.

A) Prevention of deformities.

Splints may be used at night by clients with rheumatoid arthritis to prevent deformities (A) caused by muscle spasms and contractures. Splints are not used for (B). (C) is usually treated with medications, particularly those classified as non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). For (D), a prescribed exercise program is indicated.

The nurse should be correct in withholding a dose of digoxin in a client with congestive heart failure without specific instruction from the healthcare provider if the client’s
A) serum digoxin level is 1.5.
B) blood pressure is 104/68.
C) serum potassium level is 3.
D) apical pulse is 68/min.

C) serum potassium level is 3.

Hypokalemia (C) can precipitate digitalis toxicity in persons receiving digoxin which will increase the chance of dangerous dysrhythmias (normal potassium level is 3.5 to 5.5 mEq/L). The therapeutic range for digoxin is 0.8 to 2 ng/ml (toxic levels= >2 ng/ml); (A) is within this range. (B) would not warrant the nurse withholding the digoxin. The nurse should withhold the digoxin if the apical pulse is less than 60/min (D).

During CPR, when attempting to ventilate a client’s lungs, the nurse notes that the chest is not moving. What action should the nurse take first?
A) Use a laryngoscope to check for a foreign body lodged in the esophagus.
B) Reposition the head to validate that the head is in the proper position to open the airway.
C) Turn the client to the side and administer three back blows.
D) Perform a finger sweep of the mouth to remove any vomitus.

B) Reposition the head to validate that the head is in the proper position to open the airway.

The most frequent cause of inadequate aeration of the client’s lungs during CPR is improper positioning of the head resulting in occlusion of the airway (B). A foreign body can occlude the airway, but this is not common unless choking preceded the cardiac emergency, and (A, C and D) should not be the nurse’s first action.

Despite several eye surgeries, a 78-year-old client who lives alone has persistent vision problems. The visiting nurse is discussing painting the house with the client. The nurse suggests that the edge of the steps should be painted which color?
A) Black.
B) White.
C) Light green.
D) Medium yellow.

D) Medium yellow.

Yellow is the easiest for a person with failing vision to see (D). (A) will be almost impossible to see at night because the shadows of the steps will be too difficult to determine, and would pose a safety hazard. (B) is very hard to see with a glare from the sun and it could hurt the eyes in the daytime to look at them. (C) is a pastel color and is difficult for elderly clients to see.

The nurse is assessing a client with bacterial meningitis. Which assessment finding indicates the client may have developed septic emboli?
A) Cyanosis of the fingertips.
B) Bradycardia and bradypnea.
C) Presence of S3 and S4 heart sounds.
D) 3+ pitting edema of the lower extremities.

A) Cyanosis of the fingertips.

Septic emboli secondary to meningitis commonly lodge in the small arterioles of the extremities, causing a decrease in circulation to the hands (A) which may lead to gangrene. (B, C, and D) are abnormal findings, but do not indicate the development of septic emboli.

In assessing a client diagnosed with primary hyperaldosteronism, the nurse expects the laboratory test results to indicate a decreased serum level of which substance?
A) Sodium.
B) Antidiuretic hormone.
C) Potassium.
D) Glucose.

C) Potassium.

Clients with primary aldosteronism exhibit a profound decline in the serum levels of potassium (C) (hypokalemia)–hypertension is the most prominent and universal sign. (A) is normal or elevated, depending on the amount of water reabsorbed with the sodium. (B) is decreased with diabetes insipidus. (D) is not affected by primary aldosteronism.

A client with diabetes mellitus is experiencing polyphagia. Which outcome statement is the priority for this client?
A) Fluid and electrolyte balance.
B) Prevention of water toxicity.
C) Reduced glucose in the urine.
D) Adequate cellular nourishment.

D) Adequate cellular nourishment.

Diabetes mellitus Type 1 is characterized by hyperglycemia that precipitates glucosuria and polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (excessive thirst), and polyphagia (excessive hunger). Polyphagia is a consequence of cellular malnourishment when insulin deficiency prevents utilization of glucose for energy, so the outcome statement should include stabilization of adequate cellular nutrition (D). (A, B, and C) relate to subsequent osmolar fluid shifts related to glucosuria, polyuria, and polydipsia.

Based on the analysis of the client’s atrial fibrillation, the nurse should prepare the client for which treatment protocol?
A) Diuretic therapy.
B) Pacemaker implantation.
C) Anticoagulation therapy.
D) Cardiac catheterization.

C) Anticoagulation therapy.

The client is experiencing atrial fibrillation, and the nurse should prepare the client for anticoagulation therapy (C) which should be prescribed before rhythm control therapies to prevent cardioembolic events which result from blood pooling in the fibrillating atria. (A, B, and D) are not indicated.

Which information about mammograms is most important to provide a post-menopausal female client?
A) Breast self-examinations are not needed if annual mammograms are obtained.
B) Radiation exposure is minimized by shielding the abdomen with a lead-lined apron.
C) Yearly mammograms should be done regardless of previous normal x-rays.
D) Women at high risk should have annual routine and ultrasound mammograms.

C) Yearly mammograms should be done regardless of previous normal x-rays.

The current breast screening recommendation is a yearly mammogram after age 40 (C). Breast self-exam (A) continues to be a priority recommendation for all women because a small lump (or tumor) is often first felt by a woman before a mammogram is obtained. The radiation exposure from a mammogram is low, so (B) is not normally provided. The frequency of using routine and ultrasound mammograms (D) in women with high-risk variables, such as a history of breast cancer, the presence of BRC1 and BRC2 genes, or 2 first-degree relatives with breast cancer, should be recommended and followed closely by the healthcare provider.

In assessing cancer risk, the nurse identifies which woman as being at greatest risk of developing breast cancer?
A) A 35-year-old multipara who never breastfed.
B) A 50-year-old whose mother had unilateral breast cancer.
C) A 55-year-old whose mother-in-law had bilateral breast cancer.
D) A 20-year-old whose menarche occurred at age 9.

B) A 50-year-old whose mother had unilateral breast cancer.

The most predictive risk factors for development of breast cancer are over 40 years of age and a positive family history (occurrence in the immediate family, i.e., mother or sister). Other risk factors include nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding, early menarche and late menopause. Although all of the women described have one of the risk factors for developing breast cancer, (B) has the greater risk over (A, C, and D).

A client with multiple sclerosis has experienced an exacerbation of symptoms, including paresthesias, diplopia, and nystagmus. Which instruction should the nurse provide?
A) Stay out of direct sunlight.
B) Restrict intake of high protein foods.
C) Schedule extra rest periods.
D) Go to the emergency room immediately.

C) Schedule extra rest periods.

Exacerbations of the symptoms of MS occur most commonly as the result of fatigue and stress. Extra rest periods should be scheduled (C) to reduce the symptoms. (A, B, and D) are not necessary.

Which reaction should the nurse identify in a client who is responding to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system?
A) Pupil constriction.
B) Increased heart rate.
C) Bronchial constriction.
D) Decreased blood pressure.

B) Increased heart rate.

Any stressor that is perceived as threatening to homeostasis acts to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and manifests as a flight-or-fight response, which includes an increase in heart rate (B). (A, C, and D) are responses of the parasympathetic nervous system.

A client receiving cholestyramine (Questran) for hyperlipidemia should be evaluated for what vitamin deficiency?
A) K.
B) B12.
C) B6.
D) C.

A) K.

Clients should be monitored for an increased prothrombin time and prolonged bleeding times which would alert the nurse to a vitamin K deficiency (A). These drugs reduce absorption of the fat soluble (lipid) vitamins A, D, E, and K. (B, C, and D) are not fat soluble vitamins.

The nurse is caring for a client with a stroke resulting in right-sided paresis and aphasia. The client attempts to use the left hand for feeding and other self-care activities. The spouse becomes frustrated and insists on doing everything for the client. Based on this data, which nursing diagnosis should the nurse document for this client?
A) Situational low self-esteem related to functional impairment and change in role function.
B) Disabled family coping related to dissonant coping style of significant person.
C) Interrupted family processes related to shift in health status of family member.
D) Risk for ineffective therapeutic regimen management related to complexity of care.

B) Disabled family coping related to dissonant coping style of significant person.

A stroke affects the whole family and in this case the spouse probably thinks that she is helping and needs to feel that she is contributing to the client’s care. Her help is noted as being incongruent with attempts of self-care by the client thereby disabling family coping (B). The scenario does not discuss the client’s self-esteem (A), interrupted family processes (C) or the risk for ineffective therapeutic regimen (D).

When teaching diaphragmatic breathing to a client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which information should the nurse provide?
A) Place a small book or magazine on the abdomen and make it rise while inhaling deeply.
B) Purse the lips while inhaling as deeply as possible and then exhale through the nose.
C) Wrap a towel around the abdomen and push against the towel while forcefully exhaling.
D) Place one hand on the chest, one hand the abdomen and make both hands move outward.

A) Place a small book or magazine on the abdomen and make it rise while inhaling deeply.

Diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing uses the diaphragm instead of accessory muscles to achieve maximum inhalation and to slow the respiratory rate. The client should protrude the abdomen on inhalation and contract it with exhalation, so (A) helps the client visualize the rise and fall of the abdomen. The client should purse the lips while exhaling, not (B). (C and D) are ineffective.

A middle-aged male client with diabetes continues to eat an abundance of foods that are high in sugar and fat. According to the Health Belief Model, which event is most likely to increase the client’s willingness to become compliant with the prescribed diet?
A) He visits his diabetic brother who just had surgery to amputate an infected foot.
B) He is provided with the most current information about the dangers of untreated diabetes.
C) He comments on the community service announcements about preventing complications associated with diabetes.
D) His wife expresses a sincere willingness to prepare meals that are within his prescribed diet.

A) He visits his diabetic brother who just had surgery to amputate an infected foot.

The loss of a limb by a family member (A) will be the strongest event or “cue to action” and is most likely to increase the perceived seriousness of the disease. (B, C, and D) may influence his behavior but do not have the personal impact of (A).

After the fourth dose of gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin) IV, the nurse plans to draw blood samples to determine peak and trough levels. When are the best times to draw these samples?
A) 15 minutes before and 15 minutes after the next dose.
B) One hour before and one hour after the next dose.
C) 5 minutes before and 30 minutes after the next dose.
D) 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after the next dose.

C) 5 minutes before and 30 minutes after the next dose.

Peak drug serum levels are achieved 30 minutes after IV administration of aminoglycosides. The best time to draw a trough is the closest time to the next administration (C). (A, B, and D) are not as good a time to draw the trough as (C). (B and D) are not the best times to draw the peak of an aminoglycoside that has been administered IV.

During a health fair, a 72-year-old male client tells the nurse that he is experiencing shortness of breath. Auscultation reveals crackles and wheezing in both lungs. Suspecting that the client might have chronic bronchitis, which classic symptom should the nurse expect this client to have?
A) Racing pulse with exertion.
B) Clubbing of the fingers.
C) An increased chest diameter.
D) Productive cough with grayish-white sputum.

D) Productive cough with grayish-white sputum.

Chronic bronchitis, one of the diseases comprising the diagnosis of COPD, is characterized by a productive cough with grayish-white sputum (D), which usually occurs in the morning and is often ignored by smokers. (A) is not related to chronic bronchitis; however, it is indicative of other problems such as ventricular tachycardia and should be explored. (B and C) are symptoms of emphysema and are not consistent with the other symptoms. (C) is usually referred to as a “barrel chest.”

What discharge instruction is most important for a client after a kidney transplant?
A) Weigh weekly.
B) Report symptoms of secondary Candidiasis.
C) Use daily reminders to take immunosuppressants.
D) Stop cigarette smoking.

C) Use daily reminders to take immunosuppressants.

After renal transplantation, acute rejection is a risk for several months, so immunosuppressive therapy, such as corticosteroids and azathioprine (Imuran), is essential in preventing rejection, so the priority instruction includes measures, such as daily reminders (C), to ensure the client takes these medications regularly. Daily weights, not weekly (A), provides a better indicator of weight gain related to rejection. Although fungal infections related to the immunosuppression should be reported (B), it is more important to ensure medication compliance to prevent rejection. Although smoking (D) increases the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease which is common in clients with an organ transplant, (C) remains the priority.

A client experiencing uncontrolled atrial fibrillation is admitted to the telemetry unit. What initial medication should the nurse anticipate administering to the client?
A) Xylocaine (Lidocaine).
B) Procainamide (Pronestyl).
C) Phenytoin (Dilantin).
D) Digoxin (Lanoxin).

D) Digoxin (Lanoxin).

Digoxin (Lanoxin) (D) is administered for uncontrolled, symptomatic atrial fibrillation resulting in a decreased cardiac output. Digoxin slows the rate of conduction by prolonging the refractory period of the AV node, thus slowing the ventricular response, decreasing the heart rate, and effecting cardiac output. (A, B, and C) are not indicated in the initial treatment of uncontrolled atrial fibrillation.

What instruction should the nurse give a client who is diagnosed with fibrocystic changes of the breast?
A) Observe cyst size fluctuations as a sign of malignancy.
B) Use estrogen supplements to reduce breast discomfort.
C) Notify the healthcare provider if whitish nipple discharge occurs.
D) Perform a breast self-exam (BSE) procedure monthly.

D) Perform a breast self-exam (BSE) procedure monthly.

Fibrocystic changes in the breast are related to excess fibrous tissue, proliferation of mammary ducts and cyst formation that cause edema and nerve irritation. These changes obscure typical diagnostic tests, such as mammography, due to an increased breast density. Women with fibrocystic breasts should be instructed to carefully perform monthly BSE (D) and consider changes in any previous “lumpiness.” Fibrocystic disease does not increase the risk of breast cancer (A). Cyst size fluctuates with the menstrual cycle, and typically lessens after menopause, and responds with a heightened sensitivity to circulating estrogen (B), which is not indicated. Nipple discharge associated with fibrocystic breasts is often milky or watery-milky and is an expected finding (C).

After checking the urinary drainage system for kinks in the tubing, the nurse determines that a client who has returned from the post-anesthesia care has a dark, concentrated urinary output of 54 ml for the last 2 hours. What priority nursing action should be implemented?
A) Report the findings to the surgeon.
B) Irrigate the indwelling urinary catheter.
C) Apply manual pressure to the bladder.
D) Increase the IV flow rate for 15 minutes.

A) Report the findings to the surgeon.

An adult who weighs 132 pounds (60 kg) should produce about 60 ml of urine hourly (1 ml/kg/hour). Dark, concentrated, and low volume of urine output should be reported to the surgeon. Although other actions (B, C, and D) may be indicated, the assessment findings should be reported to the healthcare provider.

The nurse is assessing a client who smokes cigarettes and has been diagnosed with emphysema. Which finding should the nurse expect this client to exhibit?
A) A decreased total lung capacity.
B) Normal arterial blood gases.
C) Normal skin coloring.
D) An absence of sputum.

C) Normal skin coloring.

The differentiation between the “pink puffer” and the “blue bloater” is a well-known method of differentiating clients exhibiting symptoms of emphysema (normal color but puffing respirations) from those exhibiting symptoms of chronic bronchitis (edematous, cyanotic, shallow respirations) (C). Total lung capacity is increased in emphysema since these clients have hyperinflated lungs (A). Arterial blood gases are typically abnormal (B). (D) is indicative of bronchitis, while clients with emphysema usually have copious amounts of thick, white sputum.

A client has taken steroids for 12 years to help manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). When making a home visit, which nursing function is of greatest importance to this client? Assess the client’s
A) pulse rate, both apically and radially.
B) blood pressure, both standing and sitting.
C) temperature.
D) skin color and turgor.

C) temperature.

It is very important to check the client’s temperature (C). Infection is the most common factor precipitating respiratory distress. Clients with COPD who are on maintenance doses of corticosteroids are particularly predisposed to infection. (A and B) are important data for baseline and ongoing assessment, but they are not as important as temperature measurement for this client who is taking steroids. Assessment of skin color and turgor is less important (D).

Which intervention should the nurse plan to implement when caring for a client who has just undergone a right above-the-knee amputation?
A) Maintain the residual limb on three pillows at all times.
B) Place a large tourniquet at the client’s bedside.
C) Apply constant, direct pressure to the residual limb.
D) Do not allow the client to lie in the prone position.

B) Place a large tourniquet at the client’s bedside.

A large tourniquet should be placed in plain sight at the client’s bedside (B). If severe bleeding occurs, the tourniquet should be readily available and applied to the residual limb to control hemorrhage. The residual limb should not be placed on a pillow (A) because a flexion contracture of the hip may result. (C) should be avoided because it may compromise wound healing. (D) should be encouraged to stretch the flexor muscles and to prevent flexion contracture of the hip.

An elderly client is admitted with a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia. The nurse’s assessment of the client is most likely to reveal which sign/symptom?
A) Leukocytosis and febrile.
B) Polycythemia and crackles.
C) Pharyngitis and sputum production.
D) Confusion and tachycardia.

D) Confusion and tachycardia.

The onset of pneumonia in the elderly may be signaled by general deterioration, confusion, increased heart rate or increased respiratory rate (D). (A, B, and C) are often absent in the elderly with bacterial pneumonia.

The nurse is teaching a client with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an autosomal recessive disorder, about the inheritance pattern. Which information should the nurse provide?
A) This recessive disorder is carried only on the X chromosome.
B) Occurrences mainly affect males and heterozygous females.
C) Both genes of a pair must be abnormal for the disorder to occur.
D) One copy of the abnormal gene is required for this disorder.

C) Both genes of a pair must be abnormal for the disorder to occur.

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a type of autosomal recessive inheritance disorder in which both genes of a pair must be abnormal for the disorder to be expressed (C). MSUD is not an x-linked (A and B) dominant or recessive disorder or an autosomal dominant inheritance disorder. Both genes of a pair, not (D), must be present.

The nurse is assessing a client’s laboratory values following administration of chemotherapy. Which lab value leads the nurse to suspect that the client is experiencing tumor lysis syndrome (TLS)?
A) Serum PTT of 10 seconds.
B) Serum calcium of 5 mg/dl.
C) Oxygen saturation of 90%.
D) Hemoglobin of 10 g/dl.

B) Serum calcium of 5 mg/dl.

TLS results in hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperphosphatemia. A serum calcium level of 5 (B), which is low, is an indicator of possible tumor lysis syndrome. (A, C, and D) are not particularly related to TLS.

A client has undergone insertion of a permanent pacemaker. When developing a discharge teaching plan, the nurse writes a goal of, “The client will verbalize symptoms of pacemaker failure.” Which symptoms are most important to teach the client?
A) Facial flushing.
B) Fever.
C) Pounding headache.
D) Feelings of dizziness.

D) Feelings of dizziness.

Feelings of dizziness may occur as the result of a decreased heart rate, leading to decreased cardiac output (D). (A and C) will not occur as the result of pacemaker failure. (B) may be an indication of infection postoperatively, but is not an indication of pacemaker failure.

A 58-year-old client who has been post-menopausal for five years is concerned about the risk for osteoporosis because her mother has the condition. Which information should the nurse offer?
A) Osteoporosis is a progressive genetic disease with no effective treatment.
B) Calcium loss from bones can be slowed by increasing calcium intake and exercise.
C) Estrogen replacement therapy should be started to prevent the progression osteoporosis.
D) Low-dose corticosteroid treatment effectively halts the course of osteoporosis.

B) Calcium loss from bones can be slowed by increasing calcium intake and exercise.

Post-menopausal females are at risk for osteoporosis due to the cessation of estrogen secretion, but a regimen including calcium, vitamin D, and weight-bearing exercise can prevent further bone loss (B). Osteoporosis can be managed with conservative therapy, such as bone metabolism regulators and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) to improve bone density, but it is not a genetic disease (A). Although ERT is effective in managing osteoporosis, an increased risk for cancer and heart disease should be considered for individual clients. Corticosteroid therapy promotes bone resorption and is counterproductive in maintaining or increasing bone density (D).

A client taking a thiazide diuretic for the past six months has a serum potassium level of 3. The nurse anticipates which change in prescription for the client?
A) The dosage of the diuretic will be decreased.
B) The diuretic will be discontinued.
C) A potassium supplement will be prescribed.
D) The dosage of the diuretic will be increased.

C) A potassium supplement will be prescribed.

This client’s potassium level is too low (normal is 3.5 to 5). Taking a thiazide diuretic often results in a loss of potassium, so a potassium supplement needs to be prescribed to restore a normal serum potassium level (C). (A, B, and D) are not recommended actions for restoring a normal serum potassium level.

The nurse is working with a 71-year-old obese client with bilateral osteoarthritis (OA) of the hips. What recommendation should the nurse make that is most beneficial in protecting the client’s joints?
A) Increase the amount of calcium intake in the diet.
B) Apply alternating heat and cold therapies.
C) Initiate a weight-reduction diet to achieve a healthy body weight.
D) Use a walker for ambulation to lessen weight-bearing on the hips.

C) Initiate a weight-reduction diet to achieve a healthy body weight.

Achieving a healthy weight (C) is critical to protect the joints of clients with OA. Increasing the amount of calcium in the client’s diet (A) will not protect hip joints from the effects of OA. Thermal therapies may lessen pain and stiffness from OA but are not protective of the joints (B). Assistive devices such as a walker may be beneficial to help avoid falls and assist in ambulation but are not protective against OA’s effects (D).

When providing discharge teaching for a client with osteoporosis, the nurse should reinforce which home care activity?
A) A diet low in phosphates.
B) Skin inspection for bruising.
C) Exercise regimen, including swimming.
D) Elimination of hazards to home safety.

D) Elimination of hazards to home safety.

Discussion about fall prevention strategies is imperative for the discharged client with osteoporosis so that advice about safety measures can be given (D). A low phosphorus diet is not recommended in the treatment of osteoporosis (A). Bruising (B) is not a related symptom to osteoporosis. Weight-bearing exercise is most beneficial for clients with osteoporosis. Swimming (C) is not a weight-bearing exercise.

A client taking furosemide (Lasix), reports difficulty sleeping. What question is important for the nurse to ask the client?
A) What dose of medication are you taking?
B) Are you eating foods rich in potassium?
C) Have you lost weight recently?
D) At what time do you take your medication?

D) At what time do you take your medication?

The nurse needs to first determine at what time of day the client takes the Lasix (D). Because of the diuretic effect of Lasix, clients should take the medication in the morning to prevent nocturia. The actual dose of medication (A) is of less importance than the time taken. (B) is not related to the insomnia. (C) is valuable information about the effect of the diuretic, but is not likely to be related to insomnia.

The nurse knows that lab values sometimes vary for the older client. Which data should the nurse expect to find when reviewing laboratory values of an 80-year-old male?
A) Increased WBC, decreased RBC.
B) Increased serum bilirubin, slightly increased liver enzymes.
C) Increased protein in the urine, slightly increased serum glucose levels.
D) Decreased serum sodium, an increased urine specific gravity.

C) Increased protein in the urine, slightly increased serum glucose levels.

In older adults, the protein found in urine slightly rises probably as a result of kidney changes or subclinical urinary tract infections. The serum glucose increases slightly due to changes in the kidney. The specific gravity declines by age 80 from 1.032 to 1.024.

Which client should the nurse recognize as most likely to experience sleep apnea?
A) Middle-aged female who takes a diuretic nightly.
B) Obese older male client with a short, thick neck.
C) Adolescent female with a history of tonsillectomy.
D) School-aged male with a history of hyperactivity disorder.

B) Obese older male client with a short, thick neck.

Sleep apnea is characterized by lack of respirations for 10 seconds or more during sleep and is due to the loss of pharyngeal tone which allows the pharynx to collapse during inspiration and obstructs air flow through the nose and mouth. With obstructive sleep apnea, the client is often obese or has a short, thick neck as in (B). (A, C, and D) are not typically prone to sleep apnea.

The nurse working in a postoperative surgical clinic is assessing a woman who had a left radical mastectomy for breast cancer. Which factor puts this client at greatest risk for developing lymphedema?
A) She sustained an insect bite to her left arm yesterday.
B) She has lost twenty pounds since the surgery.
C) Her healthcare provider now prescribes a calcium channel blocker for hypertension.
D) Her hobby is playing classical music on the piano.

A) She sustained an insect bite to her left arm yesterday.

A radical mastectomy interrupts lymph flow, and the increased lymph flow that occurs in response to the insect bite increases the risk for the occurrence of lymphedema (A). (B) is not a factor. Lymphedema is not significantly related to vascular circulation (C). Only overuse of the arm, such as weight-lifting, would cause lymphedema–(D) would not.

A 57-year-old male client is scheduled to have a stress-thallium test the following morning and is NPO after midnight. At 0130, he is agitated because he cannot eat and is demanding food. Which response is best for the nurse to provide to this client?
A) I’m sorry sir, you have a prescription for nothing by mouth from midnight tonight.
B) I will let you have one cracker, but that is all you can have for the rest of tonight.
C) What did the healthcare provider tell you about the test you are having tomorrow?
D) The test you are having tomorrow requires that you have nothing by mouth tonight.

D) The test you are having tomorrow requires that you have nothing by mouth tonight.

(D) is the most therapeutic statement because the nurse is responding to the client’s question. (A) is not an explanation and the nurse should teach the client why eating is prohibited after midnight, rather than enforcing this requirement without an explanation for it. (B) may result in an inaccurate test result, or may cause the test to be cancelled, which could also delay diagnosis and treatment. (C) defers the responsibility for answering the client’s question to the healthcare provider, when the nurse could address the situation through client teaching.

The nurse is receiving report from surgery about a client with a penrose drain who is to be admitted to the postoperative unit. Before choosing a room for this client, which information is most important for the nurse to obtain?
A) If suctioning will be needed for drainage of the wound.
B) If the family would prefer a private or semi-private room.
C) If the client also has a Hemovac® in place.
D) If the client’s wound is infected.

D) If the client’s wound is infected.

Penrose drains provide a sinus tract or opening and are often used to provide drainage of an abscess. The fact that the client has a penrose drain should alert the nurse to the possibility that the client is infected. To avoid contamination of another postoperative client, it is most important to place an infected client in a private room (D). A penrose drain does not require (A). Although (B) is information that should be considered, it does not have the priority of (D). (C) is used to drain fluid from a dead space and is not important in choosing a room.

The nurse is teaching a female client who uses a contraceptive diaphragm about reducing the risk for toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Which information should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.)
A) Remove the diaphragm immediately after intercourse.
B) Wash the diaphragm with an alcohol solution.
C) Use the diaphragm to prevent conception during the menstrual cycle.
D) Do not leave the diaphragm in place longer than 8 hours after intercourse.
E) Contact a healthcare provider a sudden onset of fever grater than 101º F appears.
F) Replace the old diaphragm every 3 months.
D) Do not leave the diaphragm in place longer than 8 hours after intercourse.
E) Contact a healthcare provider a sudden onset of fever grater than 101º F appears.Correct selections are (D and E). The diaphragm needs to remain against the cervix for 6 to 8 hours to prevent pregnancy but should not remain for longer than 8 hours (D) to avoid the risk of TSS. If a sudden fever occurs, the client should notify the healthcare provider (E). (A) increases the risk of pregnancy, and (B) can reduce the integrity of the barrier contraceptive but neither prevents the risk of TSS. The diaphragm should not be used during menses (C) because it obstructs the menstrual flow and is not indicated because conception does not occur during this time. (F) is not necessary.

A 58-year-old client, who has no health problems, asks the nurse about the Pneumovax vaccine. The nurse’s response to the client should be based on which information?
A) The vaccine is given annually before the flu season to those over 50 years of age.
B) The immunization is administered once to older adults or persons with a history of chronic illness.
C) The vaccine is for all ages and is given primarily to those persons traveling overseas to areas of infection.
D) The vaccine will prevent the occurrence of pneumococcal pneumonia for up to five years.

B) The immunization is administered once to older adults or persons with a history of chronic illness.

It is usually recommended that persons over 65 years of age and those with a history of chronic illness receive the vaccine once in a lifetime (B). (Some resources recommend obtaining the vaccine at 50 years of age.) The influenza vaccine is given once a year, not the Pneumovax (A). Although the vaccine might be given to a person traveling overseas, that is not the main rationale for administering the vaccine (C). It is usually given once in a lifetime (D), but with immunosuppressed clients or clients with a history of pneumonia re-vaccination is sometimes required.

The nurse is assessing a client who has a history of Parkinson’s disease for the past 5 years. What symptoms should this client most likely exhibit?
A) Loss of short-term memory, facial tics and grimaces, and constant writhing movements.
B) Shuffling gait, masklike facial expression, and tremors of the head.
C) Extreme muscular weakness, easy fatigability, and ptosis.
D) Numbness of the extremities, loss of balance, and visual disturbances.

B) Shuffling gait, masklike facial expression, and tremors of the head.

(B) are common clinical features of Parkinsonism. (A) are symptoms of chorea, (C) of myasthenia gravis, and (D) of multiple sclerosis.

A postmenopausal client asks the nurse why she is experiencing discomfort during intercourse. What response is best for the nurse to provide?
A) Estrogen deficiency causes the vaginal tissues to become dry and thinner.
B) Infrequent intercourse results in the vaginal tissues losing their elasticity.
C) Dehydration from inadequate fluid intake causes vulva tissue dryness.
D) Lack of adequate stimulation is the most common reason for dyspareunia.

A) Estrogen deficiency causes the vaginal tissues to become dry and thinner.

Estrogen deprivation decreases the moisture-secreting capacity of vaginal cells, so vaginal tissues tend to become thinner, drier (A), and the rugae become smoother which reduces vaginal stretching that contributes to dyspareunia. Dyspareunia is not related to (B or C). While (D) can contribute to discomfort during intercourse, the primary cause is hormone-related.

An adult client is admitted to the hospital burn unit with partial-thickness and full-thickness burns over 40% of the body surface area. In assessing the potential for skin regeneration, what should the nurse remember about full-thickness burns?
A) Regenerative function of the skin is absent because the dermal layer has been destroyed.
B) Tissue regeneration will begin several days following return of normal circulation.
C) Debridement of eschar will delay the body’s ability to regenerate normal tissue.
D) Normal tissue formation will be preceded by scar formation for the first year.

A) Regenerative function of the skin is absent because the dermal layer has been destroyed.

Full-thickness burns destroy the entire dermal layer. Included in this destruction is the regenerative tissue. For this reason, tissue regeneration does not occur, and skin grafting is necessary (A). (B, C, and D) are simply false.

Which symptoms should the nurse expect a client to exhibit who is known to have a pheochromocytoma?
A) Numbness, tingling, and cramps in the extremities.
B) Headache, diaphoresis, and palpitations.
C) Cyanosis, fever, and classic signs of shock.
D) Nausea, vomiting, and muscular weakness.

B) Headache, diaphoresis, and palpitations.

(B) is the typical triad of symptoms of tumors of the adrenal medulla (symptoms depend on the relative proportions of epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion). (A) lists the signs of latent tetany, exhibited by clients diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism. (C) lists the signs of an Addisonian (adrenal) crisis. (D) lists the signs of hyperparathyroidism.

In preparing to administer intravenous albumin to a client following surgery, what is the priority nursing intervention? (Select all that apply.)
A) Set the infusion pump to infuse the albumin within four hours.
B) Compare the client’s blood type with the label on the albumin.
C) Assign a UAP to monitor blood pressure q15 minutes.
D) Administer through a large gauge catheter.
E) Monitor hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.
F) Assess for increased bleeding after administration.
A) Set the infusion pump to infuse the albumin within four hours.
D) Administer through a large gauge catheter.
E) Monitor hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.
F) Assess for increased bleeding after administration.(A, D, E, and F) are the correct selections. Albumin should be infused within four hours because it does not contain any preservatives. Any fluid remaining after four hours should be discarded (A). Albumin administration does not require blood typing (B). Vital signs should be monitored periodically to assess for fluid volume overload, but every 15 minutes is not necessary (C). This frequency is often used during the first hour of a blood transfusion. A large gauge catheter (D) allows for fast infusion rate, which may be necessary. Hemodilution may decrease hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (E), while increased blood volume and blood pressure may cause bleeding (F).

Physical examination of a comatose client reveals decorticate posturing. Which statement is accurate regarding this client’s status based upon this finding?
A) A cerebral infectious process is causing the posturing.
B) Severe dysfunction of the cerebral cortex has occurred.
C) There is a probable dysfunction of the midbrain.
D) The client is exhibiting signs of a brain tumor.

B) Severe dysfunction of the cerebral cortex has occurred.

Decorticate posturing (adduction of arms at shoulders, flexion of arms on chest with wrists flexed and hands fisted and extension and adduction of extremities) is seen with severe dysfunction of the cerebral cortex (B). (A) is characteristic of meningitis. (C) is characterized by decerebrate posturing (rigid extension and pronation of arms and legs). A client with (D) may exhibit decorticate posturing, depending on the position of the tumor and the condition of the client.

The nurse formulates the nursing diagnosis of, Urinary retention related to sensorimotor deficit for a client with multiple sclerosis. Which nursing intervention should the nurse implement?
A) Teach the client techniques of intermittent self-catheterization.
B) Decrease fluid intake to prevent over distention of the bladder.
C) Use incontinence briefs to maintain hygiene with urinary dribbling.
D) Explain that anticholinergic drugs will decrease muscle spasticity.

A) Teach the client techniques of intermittent self-catheterization.

Bladder control is a common problem for clients with multiple sclerosis. A client with urinary retention should receive instructions about self-catheterization (A) to prevent bladder distention. Adequate hydration, not (B), is important to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections by promoting elimination which reduces the time microorganisms spend in the bladder and by diluting the number of microorganisms in the bladder. Self-catheterization helps prevent dribbling, so (C) is unnecessary. Cholinergic drugs improve bladder muscle tone and help with bladder emptying, not (D).

A client is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of severe acute diverticulitis. Which assessment finding should the nurse expect this client to exhibit?
A) Lower left quadrant pain and a low-grade fever.
B) Severe pain at McBurney’s point and nausea.
C) Abdominal pain and intermittent tenesmus.
D) Exacerbations of severe diarrhea.

A) Lower left quadrant pain and a low-grade fever.

Left lower quadrant pain occurs with diverticulitis because the sigmoid colon is the most common area for diverticula, and the inflammation of diverticula causes a low-grade fever (A). (B) would be indicative of appendicitis. (C and D) are symptoms exhibited with ulcerative colitis.

A client who is fully awake after a gastroscopy asks the nurse for something to drink. After confirming that liquids are allowed, which assessment action should the nurse consider a priority?
A) Listen to bilateral lung and bowel sounds.
B) Obtain the client’s pulse and blood pressure.
C) Assist the client to the bathroom to void.
D) Check the client’s gag and swallow reflexes.

D) Check the client’s gag and swallow reflexes.

Following gastroscopy, a client should remain nothing by mouth until the effects of local anesthesia have dissipated and the airway’s protective reflexes, gag and swallow reflexes, have returned (D). (A, B, and C) are not the priority before reintroducing oral fluids after a gastroscopy.

A client who is HIV positive asks the nurse, “How will I know when I have AIDS?” Which response is best for the nurse to provide?
A) Diagnosis of AIDS is made when you have 2 positive ELISA test results.
B) Diagnosis is made when both the ELISA and the Western Blot tests are positive.
C) I can tell that you are afraid of being diagnosed with AIDS. Would you like for me to call your minister?
D) AIDS is diagnosed when a specific opportunistic infection is found in an otherwise healthy individual.

D) AIDS is diagnosed when a specific opportunistic infection is found in an otherwise healthy individual.

AIDS is diagnosed when one of several processes defined by the CDC is present in an individual who is not otherwise immunosuppressed (D) (PCP, candidacies, crytpococcus, cryptosporidiosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, CNS lymphomas). (A and B) identify the presence of HIV, indicating a high probability that in time the individual will develop AIDS, but do not necessarily denote the presence of AIDS. (C) is telling the client how he/she feels (afraid) and is dismissing the situation to the minister. This client is asking a question and specific medical information needs to be provided.

A 49-year-old female client arrives at the clinic for an annual exam and asks the nurse why she becomes excessively diaphoretic and feels warm during nighttime. What is the nurse’s best response?
A) Explain the effect of the follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
B) Discuss perimenopause and related comfort measures.
C) Assess lung fields and for a cough productive of blood-tinged mucous.
D) Ask if a fever above 101º F has occurred in the last 24 hours.

B) Discuss perimenopause and related comfort measures.

The perimenopausal period begins about 10 years before menopause with the cessation of menstruation at the average ages of 52 to 54. Lower estrogen levels causes FSH and LH secretion in bursts (surges), which triggers vasomotor instability, night sweats, and hot flashes, so discussions about the perimenopausal body’s changes, comfort measures (B), and treatment options should be provided. In-depth pathophysiology of the symptoms (A) may only confuse the client. There is no indication that the client has tuberculosis and an infection, so (C and D) are not indicated.

The nurse is planning care for a client with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus that requires insulin. Which assessment should the nurse identify before beginning the teaching session?
A) Present knowledge related to the skill of injection.
B) Intelligence and developmental level of the client.
C) Willingness of the client to learn the injection sites.
D) Financial resources available for the equipment.

C) Willingness of the client to learn the injection sites.

If a client is incapable or does not want to learn, it is unlikely that learning will occur, so motivation is the first factor the nurse should assess before teaching (C). To determine learning needs, the nurse should assess (A), but this is not the most important factor for the nurse to assess. (B and D) are factors to consider, but not as vital as (C).

An elderly male client comes to the geriatric screening clinic complaining of pain in his left calf. The nurse notices a reddened area on the calf of his right leg which is warm to the touch and suspects it might be thrombophlebitis. Which type of pain should further confirm this suspicion?
A) Pain in the calf awakening him from a sound sleep.
B) Calf pain on exertion which stops when standing in one place.
C) Pain in the calf upon exertion which is relieved by rest and elevating the extremity.
D) Pain upon arising in the morning which is relieved after some stretching and exercise.

C) Pain in the calf upon exertion which is relieved by rest and elevating the extremity.

Thrombophlebitis pain is relieved by rest and elevation of the extremity (C). It typically occurs with exercise at the site of the thrombus, and is aggravated by placing the extremity in a dependent position, such as standing in one place (B). (A and D) describe pain that is not common with thrombophlebitis.

The nurse is planning care for a client who has a right hemispheric stroke. Which nursing diagnosis should the nurse include in the plan of care?
A) Impaired physical mobility related to right-sided hemiplegia.
B) Risk for injury related to denial of deficits and impulsiveness.
C) Impaired verbal communication related to speech-language deficits.
D) Ineffective coping related to depression and distress about disability.

B) Risk for injury related to denial of deficits and impulsiveness.

With right-brain damage, a client experience difficulty in judgment and spatial perception and is more likely to be impulsive and move quickly, which placing the client at risk for falls (B). Although clients with right and left hemisphere damage may experience impaired physical mobility, the client with right brain damage will manifest physical impairments on the contralateral side of the body, not the same side (A). The client with a left-brain injury may manifest right-sided hemiplegia with speech or language deficits (C). A client with left-brain damage is more likely to be aware of the deficits and experience grief related to physical impairment and depression (D).

A client with early breast cancer receives the results of a breast biopsy and asks the nurse to explain the meaning of staging and the type of receptors found on the cancer cells. Which explanation should the nurse provide?
A) Lymph node involvement is not significant.
B) Small tumors are aggressive and indicate poor prognosis.
C) The tumor’s estrogen receptor guides treatment options.
D) Stage I indicates metastasis.

C) The tumor’s estrogen receptor guides treatment options.

Treatment decisions (C) and prediction of prognosis are related to the tumor’s receptor status, such as estrogen and progesterone receptor status which commonly are well-differentiated, have a lower chance of recurrence, and are receptive to hormonal therapy. Tumor staging designates tumor size and spread of breast cancer cells into axillary lymph nodes, which is one of the most important prognostic factors in early-stage breast cancer, not (A). Larger tumors are more likely to indicate poor prognosis, not (B). Stage I indicates the cancer is localized and has not spread systemically (D).

Which healthcare practice is most important for the nurse to teach a postmenopausal client?
A) Wear layers of clothes if experiencing hot flashes.
B) Use a water-soluble lubricant for vaginal dryness.
C) Consume adequate foods rich in calcium.
D) Participate in stimulating mental exercises.

C) Consume adequate foods rich in calcium.

Bone density loss associated with osteoporosis increases at a more rapid rate when estrogen levels begin to fall, so the most important healthcare practice during menopause is ensuring an adequate calcium (C) intake to help maintain bone density and prevent osteoporosis. Although practices such as (A and B) may reduce some of the discomforts for a postmenopausal female, calcium intake is more important than comfort measures. Although social and mental exercises stimulate thought, there is no scientific evidence that mental exercises (D) prevent dementia or common forgetfulness associated with reduced hormonal levels.

A female client receiving IV vasopressin (Pitressin) for esophageal varice rupture reports to the nurse that she feels substernal tightness and pressure across her chest. Which PRN protocol should the nurse initiate?
A) Start an IV nitroglycerin infusion.
B) Nasogastric lavage with cool saline.
C) Increase the vasopressin infusion.
D) Prepare for endotracheal intubation.

A) Start an IV nitroglycerin infusion.

Vasopressin is used to promote vasoconstriction, thereby reducing bleeding. Vasoconstriction of the coronary arteries can lead to angina and myocardial infarction, and should be counteracted by IV nitroglycerin per prescribed protocol (A). (B) will not resolve the cardiac problem. (C) will worsen the problem. Endotracheal intubation may be needed if respiratory distress occurs (D).

While working in the emergency room, the nurse is exposed to a client with active tuberculosis. When should the nurse plan to obtain a tuberculin skin test?
A) Immediately after the exposure.
B) Within one week of the exposure.
C) Four to six weeks after the exposure.
D) Three months after the exposure.

C) Four to six weeks after the exposure.

A tuberculin skin test is effective 4 to 6 weeks after an exposure (C), so the individual with a known exposure should wait 4 to 6 weeks before having a tuberculin skin test.

The nurse is providing dietary instructions to a 68-year-old client who is at high risk for development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Which information should the nurse include?
A) Limit dietary selection of cholesterol to 300 mg per day.
B) Increase intake of soluble fiber to 10 to 25 grams per day.
C) Decrease plant stanols and sterols to less than 2 grams/day.
D) Ensure saturated fat is less than 30% of total caloric intake.

B) Increase intake of soluble fiber to 10 to 25 grams per day.

To reduce risk factors associated with coronary heart disease, the daily intake of soluble fiber (B) should be increased to between 10 and 25 gm. Cholesterol intake (A) should be limited to 180 mg/day or less. Intake of plant stanols and sterols is recommended at 2 g/day (C). Saturated fat (D) intake should be limited to 7% of total daily calories.

A client is admitted for further testing to confirm sarcoidosis. Which diagnostic test provides definitive information that the nurse should report to the healthcare provider?
A) Lung tissue biopsy.
B) Positive blood cultures.
C) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
D) Computerized tomography (CT) of the thorax.

A) Lung tissue biopsy.

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory condition that is characterized by the formation of widespread granulomatous lesions involving a pulmonary primary site. Although chest radiography identifies sarcoidosis, lung tissue biopsy (A) obtained by bronchoscopy or bronchoalveolar lavage provides definitive confirmation. (B) does not provide results for sarcoidosis. Although MRI and CT identify pulmonary lesions, the (C and D) are not necessary and do not provide definitive confirmation.

When preparing a client who has had a total laryngectomy for discharge, which instruction is most important for the nurse to include in the discharge teaching?
A) Recommend that the client carry suction equipment at all times.
B) Instruct the client to have writing materials with him at all times.
C) Tell the client to carry a medic alert card stating that he is a total neck breather.
D) Tell the client not to travel alone.

C) Tell the client to carry a medic alert card stating that he is a total neck breather.

It is imperative that total neck breathers carry a medic alert notice (C) so that if they have a cardiac arrest, mouth-to-neck breathing can be done. Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation will not help them. They do not need to carry (A) nor refrain from (D). There are many alternative means of communication for clients who have had a laryngectomy; depending on (B) is probably the least effective. How do you know he can read and write?

A 46-year-old female client is admitted for acute renal failure secondary to diabetes and hypertension. Which test is the best indicator of adequate glomerular filtration?
A) Serum creatinine.
B) Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN).
C) Sedimentation rate.
D) Urine specific gravity.

A) Serum creatinine.

Creatinine (A) is a product of muscle metabolism that is filtered by the glomerulus, and blood levels of this substance are not affected by dietary or fluid intake. An elevated creatinine strongly indicates nephron loss, reducing filtration. (B) is also an indicator of renal activity, but it can be affected by non-renal factors such as hypovolemia and increased protein intake. (C) is a nonspecific test for acute or chronic inflammatory processes. (D) is useful in assessing hydration status, but not as useful in assessing glomerular function.

Two days postoperative, a male client reports aching pain in his left leg. The nurse assesses redness and warmth on the lower left calf. What intervention should be most helpful to this client?
A) Apply sequential compression devices (SCDs) bilaterally.
B) Assess for a positive Homan’s sign in each leg.
C) Pad all bony prominences on the affected leg.
D) Advise the client to remain in bed with the leg elevated.

D) Advise the client to remain in bed with the leg elevated.

The client is exhibiting symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a complication of immobility. The initial care includes bedrest and elevation of the extremity (D). SCDs are used to prevent thrombophlebitis, not for treatment, when a clot might be dislodged (A). Once a client has thrombophlebitis, (B) is contraindicated because of the possibility of dislodging a clot. (C) is indicated to prevent pressure ulcers, but is not a therapeutic action for thrombophlebitis.

The nurse is preparing a teaching plan for a client who is newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Which signs and symptoms should the nurse describe when teaching the client about hypoglycemia?
A) Sweating, trembling, tachycardia.
B) Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia.
C) Nausea, vomiting, anorexia.
D) Fruity breath, tachypnea, chest pain.

A) Sweating, trembling, tachycardia.

Sweating, dizziness, and trembling are signs of hypoglycemic reactions related to the release of epinephrine as a compensatory response to the low blood sugar (A). (B, C, and D) do not describe common symptoms of hypoglycemia.

What is the correct procedure for performing an ophthalmoscopic examination on a client’s right retina?
A) Instruct the client to look at examiner’s nose and not move his/her eyes during the exam.
B) Set ophthalmoscope on the plus 2 to 3 lens and hold it in front of the examiner’s right eye.
C) From a distance of 8 to 12 inches and slightly to the side, shine the light into the client’s pupil.
D) For optimum visualization, keep the ophthalmoscope at least 3 inches from the client’s eye.

D) For optimum visualization, keep the ophthalmoscope at least 3 inches from the client’s eye.

The client should focus on a distant object in order to promote pupil dilation. The ophthalmoscope should be set on the 0 lens to begin (creates no correction at the beginning of the exam), and should be held in front of the examiner’s left eye when examining the client’s right eye. For optimum visualization, the ophthalmoscope should be kept within one to three inches of the client’s eye (D). (A and B) describe incorrect methods for conducting an ophthalmoscopic examination. (C) should illicit a red reflex as the light travels through the crystalline lens to the retina.

A client with a completed ischemic stroke has a blood pressure of 180/90 mm Hg. Which action should the nurse implement?
A) Position the head of the bed (HOB) flat.
B) Withhold intravenous fluids.
C) Administer a bolus of IV fluids.
D) Give an antihypertensive medications.

D) Give an antihypertensive medications.

Most ischemic strokes occur during sleep when baseline blood pressure declines or blood viscosity increases due to minimal fluid intake. Completed strokes usually produce neurologic deficits within an hour, the client’s current elevated blood pressure requires antihypertensive medication (D). Positioning the HOB flat (A) decreases venous drainage and contributes to cerebral edema post stroke. Increased blood viscosity during sleep may be related to reduced fluids, so (B) is not indicated. Increasing the vascular fluid volume increases the blood pressure, so (C) is not indicated.

A client is admitted to the hospital with a medical diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. The nurse knows that the prognosis for gram-negative pneumonias (such as E. coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Proteus) is very poor because
A) they occur in the lower lobe alveoli which are more sensitive to infection.
B) gram-negative organisms are more resistant to antibiotic therapy.
C) they occur in healthy young adults who have recently been debilitated by an upper respiratory infection.
D) gram-negative pneumonias usually affect infants and small children.

B) gram-negative organisms are more resistant to antibiotic therapy.

The gram-negative organisms are resistant to drug therapy (B) which makes recovery very difficult. Gram-negative pneumonias affect all lobes of the lung (A). The mean age for contracting this type of pneumonia is 50 years (C and D), and it usually strikes debilitated persons such as alcoholics, diabetics, and those with chronic lung diseases.

The nurse is teaching a female client about the best time to plan sexual intercourse in order to conceive. Which information should the nurse provide?
A) Two weeks before menstruation.
B) Vaginal mucous discharge is thick.
C) Low basal temperature.
D) First thing in the morning.

A) Two weeks before menstruation.

Ovulation typically occurs 14 days before menstruation begins (A), and sexual intercourse should occur within 24 hours of ovulation for conception to occur. High estrogen levels occur during ovulation and increase the vaginal mucous membrane characteristics, which become more “slippery” and stretchy, not (B). A rise in basal temperature, not (C), signals ovulation. The timing during the day is not as significant in determining conception as the day before and after ovulation (D).

During suctioning, a client with an uncuffed tracheostomy tube begins to cough violently and dislodges the tracheostomy tube. Which action should the nurse implement first?
A) Notify the healthcare provider for reinsertion.
B) Attempt to reinsert the tracheostomy tube.
C) Position the client in a lateral position with the neck extended.
D) Ventilate client’s tracheostomy stoma with a manual bag-mask.

B) Attempt to reinsert the tracheostomy tube.

The nurse should attempt to reinsert the tracheostomy tube (B) by using a hemostat to open the tracheostomy or by grasping the retention sutures (if present) to spread the opening in insert a replacement tube (with its obturator) into the stoma. Once in place, the obturator should immediately be removed. (A, C, and D) place the client at risk of airway obstruction.

A male client who has never smoked but has had COPD for the past 5 years is now being assessed for cancer of the lung. The nurse knows that he is most likely to develop which type of lung cancer?
A) Adenocarcinoma.
B) Oat-cell carcinoma.
C) Malignant melanoma.
D) Squamous-cell carcinoma.

A) Adenocarcinoma.

Adenocarcinoma is the only lung cancer not related to cigarette smoking (A). It has been found to be directly related to lung scarring and fibrosis from preexisting pulmonary disease such as TB or COPD. Both (B and D) are malignant lung cancers related to cigarette smoking. (C) is a skin cancer and is related to exposure to sunlight, not to lung problems.

The nurse assesses a client with advanced cirrhosis of the liver for signs of hepatic encephalopathy. Which finding should the nurse consider an indication of progressive hepatic encephalopathy?
A) An increase in abdominal girth.
B) Hypertension and a bounding pulse.
C) Decreased bowel sounds.
D) Difficulty in handwriting.

D) Difficulty in handwriting.

A daily record in handwriting may provide evidence of progression or reversal of hepatic encephalopathy leading to coma (D). (A) is a sign of ascites. (B) are not seen with hepatic encephalopathy. (C) does not indicate an increase in serum ammonia level which is the primary cause of hepatic encephalopathy.

A client who has heart failure is admitted with a serum potassium level of 2.9 mEq/L. Which action is most important for the nurse to implement?
A) Give 20 mEq of potassium chloride.
B) Initiate continuous cardiac monitoring.
C) Arrange a consultation with the dietician.
D) Teach about the side effects of diuretics.

B) Initiate continuous cardiac monitoring.

Hypokalemia (normal 3.5 to 5 mEq/L) causes changes in myocardial irritability and ECG waveform, so it is most important for the nurse to initiate continuous cardiac monitoring (B) to identify ventricular ectopy or other life-threatening dysrhythmias. Potassium chloride (A) should be given after cardiac monitoring is initiated so that the effects of potassium replacement on the cardiac rhythm can be monitored. (C and D) should be implemented when the client is stable.

A client is brought to the Emergency Center after a snow-skiing accident. Which intervention is most important for the nurse to implement?
A) Review the electrocardiogram tracing.
B) Obtain blood for coagulation studies.
C) Apply a warming blanket.
D) Provide heated PO fluids.

A) Review the electrocardiogram tracing.

Airway, breathing, and circulation are priorities in client assessment and treatment. Continuous cardiac monitoring is indicated (A) because hypothermic clients have an increased risk for dysrhythmias. Coagulations studies (A) and re-warming procedures (C and D) can be initiated after a review of the ECG tracing (A).

The nurse is planning care to prevent complication for a client with multiple myeloma. Which intervention is most important for the nurse to include?
A) Safety precautions during activity.
B) Assess for changes in size of lymph nodes.
C) Maintain a fluid intake of 3 to 4 L per day.
D) Administer narcotic analgesic around the clock.

C) Maintain a fluid intake of 3 to 4 L per day.

Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells that infiltrate bone causing demineralization and hypercalcemia, so maintaining a urinary output of 1.5 to 2 L per day requires an intake of 3 to 4 L (C) to promote excretion of serum calcium. Although the client is at risk for pathologic fractures due to diffuse osteoporosis, mobilization and weight bearing (A) should be encouraged to promote bone reabsorption of circulating calcium, which can cause renal complications. (B) is a component of ongoing assessment. Chronic pain management (D) should be included in the plan of care, but prevention of complications related to hypercalcemia is most important.

The nurse notes that the only ECG for a 55-year-old male client scheduled for surgery in two hours is dated two years ago. The client reports that he has a history of “heart trouble,” but has no problems at present. Hospital protocol requires that those over 50 years of age have a recent ECG prior to surgery. What nursing action is best for the nurse to implement?
A) Ask the client what he means by “heart trouble.”
B) Call for an ECG to be performed immediately.
C) Notify surgery that the ECG is over two years old.
D) Notify the client’s surgeon immediately.

B) Call for an ECG to be performed immediately.

Clients over the age of 40 and/or with a history of cardiovascular disease, should receive ECG evaluation prior to surgery, generally 24 hours to two weeks before. (B) should be implemented to ensure that the client’s current cardiovascular status is stable. Additional data might be valuable (A), but since time is limited, the priority is to obtain the needed ECG. Documentation of vital signs is important, but does not replace the need for the ECG (C). The surgeon only needs to be notified if the ECG cannot be completed, or if there is a significant problem (D).

A client has a staging procedure for cancer of the breast and ask the nurse which type of breast cancer has the poorest prognosis. Which information should the nurse offer the client?
A) Stage II.
B) Invasive infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
C) T1N0M0.
D) Inflammatory with peau d’orange.

D) Inflammatory with peau d’orange.

Inflammatory breast cancer, which has a thickened appearance like an orange peel (peau d’orange), is the most aggressive form of breast malignancies (D). Staging classifies cancer by the extension or spread of the disease, and (A) indicates limited local spread. (B) indicates cancer cells have spread from the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue only. TNM classification is used to indicate the extent of the disease process according to tumor size, regional spread lymph nodes involvement, and metastasis, and (C) indicates early cancer with small in situ involvement, no lymph node involvement, and no distant metastases.

A client is placed on a respirator following a cerebral hemorrhage, and vecuronium bromide (Norcuron) 0.04 mg/kg q12h IV is prescribed. Which nursing diagnosis is the priority for this client?
A) Impaired communication related to paralysis of skeletal muscles.
B) High risk for infection related to increased intracranial pressure.
C) Potential for injury related to impaired lung expansion.
D) Social isolation related to inability to communicate.

A) Impaired communication related to paralysis of skeletal muscles.

To increase the client’s tolerance of endotracheal intubation and/or mechanical ventilation, a skeletal-muscle relaxant such as vecuronium is usually prescribed. Impaired communication (A) is a serious outcome because the client cannot communicate his/her needs. Although this client might also experience (D), it is not a priority when compared to (A). Infection is not related to increased intracranial pressure (B). The respirator will ensure that the lungs are expanded (C).

Healthcare workers must protect themselves against becoming infected with HIV. The Center for Disease Control has issued guidelines for healthcare workers in relation to protection from HIV. These guidelines include which recommendation?
A) Place HIV positive clients in strict isolation and limit visitors.
B) Wear gloves when coming in contact with the blood or body fluids of any client.
C) Conduct mandatory HIV testing of those who work with AIDS clients.
D) Freeze HIV blood specimens at -70° F to kill the virus.

B) Wear gloves when coming in contact with the blood or body fluids of any client.

The CDC guidelines recommend that healthcare workers use gloves when coming in contact with blood or body fluids from ANY client (B) since HIV is infectious before the client becomes aware of symptoms. (A) is not recommended, nor is it necessary. (C) is very controversial, difficult to enforce, and is not recommended by CDC. (D) does not guarantee to kill the virus. Additionally, the purpose of the blood specimen will determine how it is stored and handled.

A client who is sexually active with several partners requests an intrauterine device (IUD) as a contraceptive method. Which information should the nurse provide?
A) Using an IUD offers no protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STD), which increase the risk for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
B) Getting pregnant while using an IUD is common and is not the best contraceptive choice.
C) Relying on an IUD may be a safer choice for monogamous partners, but a barrier method provides a better option in preventing STD transmission.
D) Selecting a contraceptive device should consider choosing a successful method used in the past.

A) Using an IUD offers no protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STD), which increase the risk for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

The use of an IUD provides the client with no protection from STDs (A). While pregnancy rates with the use of an IUD are somewhat higher, (B) is not therapeutic, but judgmental. (C) is judgmental and does not provide the client any information about use of an IUD. While talking about contraceptives may include (D), it is does not provide the best information to maintain the client’s health.

The nurse is planning to initiate a socialization group for older residents of a long-term facility. Which information is most useful to the nurse when planning activities for the group?
A) The length of time each group member has resided at the nursing home.
B) A brief description of each resident’s family life.
C) The age of each group member.
D) The usual activity patterns of each member of the group.

D) The usual activity patterns of each member of the group.

An older person’s level of activity (D) is a determining factor in adjustment to aging as described by the Activity Theory of Aging. All information described in the options might be useful to the nurse, but the most useful information initially would be an assessment of each individual’s adjustment to the aging process.

Which milestone indicates to the nurse successful achievement of young adulthood?
A) Demonstrates a conceptualization of death and dying.
B) Completes education and becomes self-supporting.
C) Creates a new definition of self and roles with others.
D) Develops a strong need for parental support and approval.

B) Completes education and becomes self-supporting.

Transitioning through young adulthood is characterized by establishing independence as an adult, and includes developmental tasks such as completing education, beginning a career, and becoming self-supporting (B). (A and C) are characteristic of adolescence. Although strong bonds with parents are an expected finding for this age group, the need for support and approval (D) indicates dependency, which is a developmental delay.

Which finding should the nurse identify as most significant for a client diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease (PKD)?
A) Hematuria.
B) 2 pounds weight gain.
C) 3+ bacteria in urine.
D) Steady, dull flank pain.

C) 3+ bacteria in urine.

Urinary tract infections (UTI) for a client with PKD require prompt antibiotic therapy to prevent renal damage and scarring which may cause further progression of the disease, so bacteria in the urine (C) is the most significant finding at this time. (A) is an expected finding from the rupture of the cysts. (B) does not provide a time frame to determine if the weight gain is a significant fluid fluctuation, which is determined within a 24-hour time frame. Although kidney pain can also be abrupt, episodic, and colicky related to bleeding into the cysts, (D) is more likely an early symptom in PKD.

A client with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been experiencing severe reflux during sleep. Which recommendation by the nurse is most effective to assist the client?
A) Losing weight.
B) Decreasing caffeine intake.
C) Avoiding large meals.
D) Raising the head of the bed on blocks.

D) Raising the head of the bed on blocks.

Raising the head of the bed on blocks (D) (reverse Trendelenburg position) to reduce reflux and subsequent aspiration is the most effective recommendation for a client experiencing severe gastroesophageal reflux during sleep. (A, B and C) may be effective recommendations but raising the head of the bed is more effective for relief during sleep.

The healthcare provider prescribes aluminum and magnesium hydroxide (Maalox), 1 tablet PO PRN, for a client with chronic renal failure who is complaining of indigestion. What intervention should the nurse implement?
A) Administer 30 minutes before eating.
B) Evaluate the effectiveness 1 hour after administration.
C) Instruct the client to swallow the tablet whole.
D) Question the healthcare provider’s prescription.

D) Question the healthcare provider’s prescription.

Magnesium agents are not usually used for clients with renal failure due to the risk of hypermagnesemia, so this prescription should be questioned by the nurse (D). (A, B, and C) are not recommended nursing actions for the administration of aluminum and magnesium hydroxide (Maalox).

A client who was in a motor vehicle collision was admitted to the hospital and the right knee was placed in skeletal traction. The nurse has documented this nursing diagnosis in the client’s medical record: “Potential for impairment of skin integrity related to immobility from traction.” Which nursing intervention is indicated based on this diagnosis statement?
A) Release the traction q4h to provide skin care.
B) Turn the client for back care while suspending traction.
C) Provide back and skin care while maintaining the traction.
D) Give back care after the client is released from traction.

C) Provide back and skin care while maintaining the traction.

(C) indicates that back care is performed while traction is left intact, which is the correct intervention for maintaining skin integrity. Maintaining skin integrity and providing back care is difficult when a client is in traction, but it cannot be delayed until the client is removed from traction (D). The nurse should never release the traction (A and B).

A client reports unprotected sexual intercourse one week ago and is worried about HIV exposure. An initial HIV antibody screen (ELISA) is obtained. The nurse teaches the client that seroconversion to HIV positive relies on antibody production by B lymphocytes after exposure to the virus. When should the nurse recommend the client return for repeat blood testing?
A) 6 to 18 months.
B) 1 to 12 months.
C) 1 to 18 weeks.
D) 6 to 12 weeks.

D) 6 to 12 weeks.

Although the HIV antigen is detectable approximately 2 weeks after exposure, seroconversion to HIV positive may take up to 6 to 12 weeks (D) after exposure, so the client should return to repeat the serum screen for the presence of HIV antibodies during that time frame. (A) will delay treatment if the client tests positive. (B and C) may provide inaccurate results because the time frame maybe too early to reevaluate the client.

The nurse is assessing a client with chronic renal failure (CRF). Which finding is most important for the nurse to respond to first?
A) Potassium 6.0 mEq.
B) Daily urine output of 400 ml.
C) Peripheral neuropathy.
D) Uremic fetor.

A) Potassium 6.0 mEq.

Hyperkalemia (normal serum level, 3.5 to 5.5 mEq) is a serious electrolyte disorder that can cause fatal arrhythmias, so (A) is the nursing priority. (B) is an expected finding associated with renal tubular destruction. In CRF, an increase in serum nitrogenous waste products, electrolyte imbalances, and demyelination of the nerve fibers contribute to the development of (C). (D) is a urinous odor of the breath related to the accumulation of blood urea nitrogen and is a common complication of CRF, but not as significant as hyperkalemia.

A 32-year-old female client complains of severe abdominal pain each month before her menstrual period, painful intercourse, and painful defecation. Which additional history should the nurse obtain that is consistent with the client’s complaints?
A) Frequent urinary tract infections.
B) Inability to get pregnant.
C) Premenstrual syndrome.
D) Chronic use of laxatives.

B) Inability to get pregnant.

Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and difficulty or painful defecation are common symptoms of endometriosis, which is the abnormal displacement of endometrial tissue in the dependent areas of the pelvic peritoneum. A history of infertility (B) is another common finding associated with endometriosis. Although (A, C, and D) are common, nonspecific gynecological complaints, the most common complaints of the client with endometriosis are pain and infertility.

During an interview with a client planning elective surgery, the client asks the nurse, “What is the advantage of having a preferred provider organization insurance plan?” Which response is best for the nurse to provide?
A) Long-term relationships with healthcare providers are more likely.
B) There are fewer healthcare providers to choose from than in an HMO plan.
C) Insurance coverage of employees is less expensive to employers.
D) An individual can become a member of a PPO without belonging to a group.

C) Insurance coverage of employees is less expensive to employers.

The financial advantage of (C) is the feature of a PPO that is most relevant to the average consumer. The nurse must have knowledge about PPOs, which provide discounted rates to large employers who provide insurance coverage for their employees. In return, the insurance company receives a large pool of clients for their facilities. (A, B, and D) are not accurate representations of the PPO.

How should the nurse position the electrodes for modified chest lead one (MCL I) telemetry monitoring?
A) Positive polarity right shoulder, negative polarity left shoulder, ground left chest nipple line.
B) Positive polarity left shoulder, negative polarity right chest nipple line, ground left chest nipple line.
C) Positive polarity right chest nipple line, negative polarity left chest nipple line, ground left shoulder.
D) Negative polarity left shoulder, positive polarity right chest nipple line, ground left chest nipple line.

D) Negative polarity left shoulder, positive polarity right chest nipple line, ground left chest nipple line.

In MCL I monitoring, the positive electrode is placed on the client’s mid-chest to the right of the sternum, and the negative electrode is placed on the upper left part of the chest (D). The ground may be placed anywhere, but is usually placed on the lower left portion of the chest. (A, B, and C) describe incorrect placement of electrodes for telemetry monitoring.

During assessment of a client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which finding should the nurse identify when planning care for this client?
A) Muscle weakness.
B) Urinary frequency.
C) Abnormal involuntary movements.
D) A decline in cognitive function.

A) Muscle weakness.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a degeneration of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord and are manifested by muscle weakness (A) and wasting. ALS does not manifest (B and C). In ALS, the client remains cognitively intact, not (D), while the physical status deteriorates.

The nurse is completing an admission interview and assessment on a client with a history of Parkinson’s disease. Which question should provide information relevant to the client’s plan of care?
A) Have you ever experienced any paralysis of your arms or legs?
B) Have you ever sustained a severe head injury?
C) Have you ever been ‘frozen’ in one spot, unable to move?
D) Do you have headaches, especially ones with throbbing pain?

C) Have you ever been ‘frozen’ in one spot, unable to move?

Clients with Parkinson’s disease frequently experience difficulty in initiating, maintaining, and performing motor activities. They may even experience being rooted to the spot and unable to move (C). Parkinson’s disease does not cause (A). Parkinson’s disease is not usually associated with (B), nor does it typically cause (D).

A female client requests information about using the calendar method of contraception. Which assessment is most important for the nurse to obtain?
A) Amount of weight gain or weight loss during the previous year.
B) An accurate menstrual cycle diary for the past 6 to 12 months.
C) Skin pigmentation and hair texture for evidence of hormonal changes.
D) Previous birth-control methods and beliefs about the calendar method.

B) An accurate menstrual cycle diary for the past 6 to 12 months.

The fertile period, which occurs 2 weeks prior to the onset of menses, is determined using an accurate record of the number of days of the menstrual cycles for the past 6 months, so it is most important to emphasize to the client that accuracy and compliancy of a menstrual diary (B) is the basis of the calendar method. (A and C) may be partially related to hormonal fluctuations but are not indicators for using the calendar method. (D) may demonstrate client understanding and compliancy but is not the most important aspect.

The nurse is caring for a client with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), which is manifested by which symptoms?
A) Loss of thirst, weight gain.
B) Dependent edema, fever.
C) Polydipsia, polyuria.
D) Hypernatremia, tachypnea.

A) Loss of thirst, weight gain.

SIADH occurs when the posterior pituitary gland releases too much ADH, causing water retention, a urine output of less than 20 ml/hour, and dilutional hyponatremia. Other indications of SIADH are loss of thirst, weight gain (A), irritability, muscle weakness, and decreased level of consciousness. (B) is not associated with SIADH. (C) is a finding associated with diabetes insipidus (a water metabolism problem caused by an ADH deficiency), not SIADH. The increase in plasma volume causes an increase in the glomerular filtration rate that inhibits the release of rennin and aldosterone, which results in an increased sodium loss in urine, leading to greater hyponatremia, not (D).

What types of medications should the nurse expect to administer to a client during an acute respiratory distress episode?
A) Vasodilators and hormones.
B) Analgesics and sedatives.
C) Anticoagulants and expectorants.
D) Bronchodilators and steroids.

D) Bronchodilators and steroids.

Besides supplemental oxygen, the ARDS client needs medications to widen air passages, increase air space, and reduce alveolar membrane inflammation, i.e., bronchodilators and steroids (D). (A) would not help the condition. (B) would further depress the client and compromise the ability to breathe. Anticoagulants would be contraindicated since clotting of the blood is not yet a problem, and expectorants are not appropriate for this critically ill client (C).

A 51-year-old truck driver who smokes two packs of cigarettes a day and is 30 pounds overweight is diagnosed with having a gastric ulcer. What content is most important for the nurse to include in the discharge teaching for this client?
A) Information about smoking cessation.
B) Diet instructions for a low-residue diet.
C) Instructions on a weight-loss program.
D) The importance of increasing milk in the diet.

A) Information about smoking cessation.

Smoking has been associated with ulcer formation, and stopping or decreasing the number of cigarettes smoked per day is an important aspect of ulcer management (A). Diet management includes a reduction in high-fiber/high-roughage foods as well as spicy foods. (B) would be indicated for inflammatory bowel disease. Sodium and caloric intake are not the key elements in an ulcer diet. Although this client does need (C), the management of his ulcer is the key factor at this point. (D) would actually increase gastric acid production.

Which postmenopausal client’s complaint should the nurse refer to the healthcare provider?
A) Breasts feel lumpy when palpated.
B) History of white nipple discharge.
C) Episodes of vaginal bleeding.
D) Excessive diaphoresis occurs at night.

C) Episodes of vaginal bleeding.

Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding (C) may be an indication of endometrial cancer, which should be reported to the healthcare provider. Compared to a new-onset of a single lump, breasts that feel lumpy (A) overall may be a normal variant or a finding consistent with nonmalignant fibrocystic disease. Up to 80% of women experience (B), depending on sexual stimulation or hormonal levels, and is no longer recommended as a reportable symptom when discovered during breast self-exam (BSE). The client may need further teaching concerning (D), a disturbing symptom, but it is not as important as (C).

Dysrhythmias are a concern for any client. However, the presence of a dysrhythmia is more serious in an elderly person because
A) elderly persons usually live alone and cannot summon help when symptoms appear.
B) elderly persons are more likely to eat high-fat diets which make them susceptible to heart disease.
C) cardiac symptoms, such as confusion, are more difficult to recognize in the elderly.
D) elderly persons are intolerant of decreased cardiac output which may result in dizziness and falls.

D) elderly persons are intolerant of decreased cardiac output which may result in dizziness and falls.

Cardiac output is decreased with aging (D). Because of loss of contractility and elasticity, blood flow is decreased and tachycardia is poorly tolerated. Therefore, if an elderly person experiences dysrhythmia (tachycardia or bradycardia), further compromising their cardiac output, they are more likely to experience syncope, falls, transient ischemic attacks, and possibly dementia. Most elderly persons do not eat high-fat diets (B) and most are not confused (C). Although many elderly persons do live alone, inability to summon help (A) cannot be assumed.

A 77-year-old female client is admitted to the hospital. She is confused, has no appetite, is nauseated and vomiting, and is complaining of a headache. Her pulse rate is 43 beats per minute. Which question is a priority for the nurse to ask this client or her family on admission? “Does the client
A) have her own teeth or dentures?”
B) take aspirin and if so, how much?”
C) take nitroglycerin?”
D) take digitalis?”

D) take digitalis?”

Elderly persons are particularly susceptible to digitalis intoxication (D) which manifests itself in such symptoms as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and fatigue. Although it is important to obtain a complete medication history (B and C), the symptoms described are classic for digitalis toxicity, and assessment of this problem should be made promptly. (A) is irrelevant.

The nurse is caring for a client with a continuous feeding through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. Which intervention should the nurse include in the plan of care?
A) Flush the tube with 50 ml of water q 8 hours.
B) Check for tube placement and residual volume q4 hours.
C) Obtain a daily x- ray to verify tube placement.
D) Position on left side with head of bed elevated 45 degrees.

B) Check for tube placement and residual volume q4 hours.

Tube placement and residual volume should be checked before each feeding (B). Tube placement is checked by aspiration of stomach contents and measurement of pH. It is important to check for residual volume because gastric emptying is often delayed during illness. There is an increased risk for aspiration of the feeding with increased residual volume. (A, C, and D) are not correct procedures to follow.

A female client taking oral contraceptives reports to the nurse that she is experiencing calf pain. What action should the nurse implement?
A) Determine if the client has also experienced breast tenderness and weight gain.
B) Encourage the client to begin a regular, daily program of walking and exercise.
C) Advise the client to notify the healthcare provider for immediate medical attention.
D) Tell the client to stop taking the medication for a week to see if symptoms subside.

C) Advise the client to notify the healthcare provider for immediate medical attention.

Calf pain is indicative of thrombophlebitis, a serious, life-threatening complication associated with the use of oral contraceptives which requires further assessment and possibly immediate medical intervention (C). (A) are symptoms of oral contraceptive use, but are of less immediacy than (C). (B) may cause an embolism if thrombophlebitis is present. By not seeking immediate attention, (D) is potentially dangerous to the client.

A client has been taking oral corticosteroids for the past five days because of seasonal allergies. Which assessment finding is of most concern to the nurse?
A) White blood count of 10,000 mm3.
B) Serum glucose of 115 mg/dl.
C) Purulent sputum.
D) Excessive hunger.

C) Purulent sputum.

Steroids cause immunosuppression, and a purulent sputum (C) is an indication of infection, so this symptom is of greatest concern. Oral steroids may increase (A) and often cause (D). (B) may remain normal, borderline, or increase while taking oral steroids.

Which intervention should the nurse implement for a female client diagnosed with pelvic relaxation disorder?
A) Describe proper administration of vaginal suppositories and cream.
B) Encourage the client to perform Kegel exercises 10 times daily.
C) Explain the importance of using condoms when having sexual intercourse.
D) Discuss the importance of keeping a diary of daily temperature and menstrual cycle events.

B) Encourage the client to perform Kegel exercises 10 times daily.

Pelvic relaxation disorders are structural disorders resulting from weakening support tissues of the pelvis. (B) helps strengthen the surrounding muscles. Medication will not help correct a cystocele, rectocele, or uterine prolapse (A). (C) will help prevent sexually transmitted diseases. (D) is used to identify fertile times during the woman’s menstrual cycle.

Which assessment finding by the nurse during a client’s clinical breast examination requires follow-up?
A) Newly retracted nipple.
B) A thickened area where the skin folds under the breast.
C) Whitish nipple discharge.
D) Tender lumpiness noted bilaterally throughout the breasts.

A) Newly retracted nipple.

A newly retracted nipple (A), compared to a life-long finding, may be an indication of breast cancer and requires additional follow-up. The inframammary ridge (B) is a normal anatomic finding. Up to 80% of women may experience an intermittent nipple discharge (C), especially related to recent stimulation, and in most cases, nipple discharge is not related to malignancy. (D) is a classic finding for fibrocystic breast disease, a benign condition.

A male client receives a local anesthetic during surgery. During the post-operative assessment, the nurse notices the client is slurring his speech. Which action should the nurse take?
A) Determine the client is anxious and allow him to sleep.
B) Evaluate his blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory status.
C) Review the client’s pre-operative history for alcohol abuse.
D) Continue to monitor the client for reactivity to anesthesia.

B) Evaluate his blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory status.

Slurred speech in the post-operative client who received a local anesthetic is an atypical finding and may indicate neurological deficits that require further assessment, so obtaining the client’s vital signs (B) will provide information about possible cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. The client’s anxiety (A), a history of alcohol abuse (D), or local anesthesia (D) are unrelated to the client’s sudden onset of slurred speech.

The nurse working on a telemetry unit finds a client unconscious and in pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT). The client has an implanted automatic defibrillator. What action should the nurse implement?
A) Prepare the client for transcutaneous pacemaker.
B) Shock the client with 200 joules per hospital policy.
C) Use a magnet to deactivate the implanted pacemaker.
D) Observe the monitor until the onset of ventricular fibrillation.

B) Shock the client with 200 joules per hospital policy.

The client must be externally shocked (B) to restore an effective cardiac rhythm. The automatic defibrillator is obviously malfunctioning. (A) will not be effective during ventricular tachycardia, since it is used for asystole. Since the defibrillator is not functioning, (C) is not warranted. The client should be treated immediately to restore cardiac output (D).

The nurse is taking a history of a newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetic who is beginning treatment. Which subjective information is most important for the nurse to note?
A) A history of obesity.
B) An allergy to sulfa drugs.
C) Cessation of smoking three years ago.
D) Numbness in the soles of the feet.

B) An allergy to sulfa drugs.

An allergy to sulfa drugs may make the client unable to use some of the most common antihyperglycemic agents (sulfonylureas). The nurse needs to highlight this allergy for the healthcare provider. (A) is common and warrants counseling, but does not have the importance of (B). (C) does increase the risk for vascular disease, but it is not as important to the treatment regimen as (B). Diabetic neuropathy, as indicated by (D), is common with diabetics, but when the serum glucose is decreased, new onset numbness can possibly improve.

Small bowel obstruction is a condition characterized by which finding?
A) Severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances.
B) Metabolic acidosis.
C) Ribbon-like stools.
D) Intermittent lower abdominal cramping.

A) Severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

Among the findings characteristic of a small bowel obstruction is the presence of severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances (A). (B, C, and D) are findings associated with large bowel obstruction.

A client who is receiving chemotherapy asks the nurse, “Why is so much of my hair falling out each day?” Which response by the nurse best explains the reason for alopecia?
A) Chemotherapy affects the cells of the body that grow rapidly, both normal and malignant.
B) Alopecia is a common side effect you will experience during long-term steroid therapy.
C) Your hair will grow back completely after your course of chemotherapy is completed.
D) The chemotherapy causes permanent alterations in your hair follicles that lead to hair loss.

A) Chemotherapy affects the cells of the body that grow rapidly, both normal and malignant.

The common adverse effects of chemotherapy (nausea, vomiting, alopecia, bone marrow depression) are due to chemotherapy’s effect on the rapidly reproducing cells, both normal and malignant (A). (B and D) do not provide correct information about chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Although (D) is a true statement, it does not effectively answer the client’s question.

In preparing a discharge plan for a 22-year-old male client diagnosed with Buerger’s disease (thromboangiitis obliterans), which referral is most important?
A) Genetic counseling.
B) Twelve-step recovery program.
C) Clinical nutritionist.
D) Smoking cessation program.

D) Smoking cessation program.

Buerger’s disease is strongly related to smoking. The most effective means of controlling symptoms and disease progression is through smoking cessation (D). The cause of Buerger’s disease is unknown; a genetic predisposition is possible, but (A) will not be of value. The client with Buerger’s disease does not need referral to a 12-step program any more than the general population (B). Diet is not a significant factor in the disease, and general healthy diet guidelines can be provided by the nurse (C).

An 81-year-old male client has emphysema. He lives at home with his cat and manages self-care with no difficulty. When making a home visit, the nurse notices that his tongue is somewhat cracked and his eyeballs are sunken into his head. What nursing intervention is indicated?
A) Help the client to determine ways to increase his fluid intake.
B) Obtain an appointment for the client to see an ear, nose, and throat specialist.
C) Schedule an appointment with an allergist to determine if the client is allergic to the cat.
D) Encourage the client to slightly increase his use of oxygen at night and to always use humidified oxygen.

A) Help the client to determine ways to increase his fluid intake.

The nurse should suggest creative methods to increase the intake of fluids (A), such as having disposable fruit juices readily available. Clients with COPD should have at least three liters of fluids a day. These clients often reduce fluid intake because of shortness of breath. (B) is not indicated. These symptoms are not indicative of an allergy (C). Many elderly depend on their pets for socialization and self-esteem. Humidified oxygen will not relieve these symptoms and increased oxygen levels will stifle the COPD client’s trigger to breathe (D).

A client with heart disease is on a continuous telemetry monitor and has developed sinus bradycardia. In determining the possible cause of the bradycardia, the nurse assesses the client’s medication record. Which medication is most likely the cause of the bradycardia?
A) Propanolol (Inderal).
B) Captopril (Capoten).
C) Furosemide (Lasix).
D) Dobutamine (Dobutrex).

A) Propanolol (Inderal).

Inderal (A) is a beta adrenergic blocking agent, which causes decreased heart rate and decreased contractility. Neither (B), an ACE inhibitor, nor (C), a loop diuretic, causes bradycardia. (D) is a sympathomimetic, direct acting cardiac stimulant, which would increase the heart rate.

A client with cirrhosis develops increasing pedal edema and ascites. What dietary modification is most important for the nurse to teach this client?
A) Avoid high carbohydrate foods.
B) Decrease intake of fat soluble vitamins.
C) Decrease caloric intake.
D) Restrict salt and fluid intake.

D) Restrict salt and fluid intake.

Salt and fluid restrictions are the first dietary modifications for a client who is retaining fluid as manifested by edema and ascites (D). (A, B, and C) will not impact fluid retention.

The nurse is interviewing a male client with hypertension. Which additional medical diagnosis in the client’s history presents the greatest risk for developing a cerebral vascular accident (CVA)?
A) Diabetes mellitus.
B) Hypothyroidism.
C) Parkinson’s disease.
D) Recurring pneumonia.

A) Diabetes mellitus.

A history of diabetes mellitus poses the greatest risk for developing a CVA (A). (B, C, and D) may place the client at some risk due to immobility, but do not present a risk as great as (A).

A client with a 16-year history of diabetes mellitus is having renal function tests because of recent fatigue, weakness, elevated blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels. Which finding should the nurse conclude as an early symptom of renal insufficiency?
A) Dyspnea.
B) Nocturia.
C) Confusion.
D) Stomatitis.

B) Nocturia

As the glomerular filtration rate decreases in early renal insufficiency, metabolic waste products, including urea, creatinine, and other substances, such phenols, hormones, electrolytes, accumulate in the blood. In the early stage of renal insufficiency, polyuria results from the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine and contribute to nocturia (B). (A, C, and D) are more common in the later stages of renal failure.

During lung assessment, the nurse places a stethoscope on a client’s chest and instructs him/her to say “99” each time the chest is touched with the stethoscope. What should be the correct interpretation if the nurse hears the spoken words “99” very clearly through the stethoscope?
A) This is a normal auscultatory finding.
B) May indicate pneumothorax.
C) May indicate pneumonia.
D) May indicate severe emphysema.

C) May indicate pneumonia.

This test (whispered pectoriloquy) demonstrates hyperresonance and helps determine the clarity with which spoken words are heard upon auscultation. Normally, the spoken word is not well transmitted through lung tissue, and is heard as a muffled or unclear transmission of the spoken word. Increased clarity of a spoken word is indicative of some sort of consolidation process (e.g., tumor, pneumonia) (C), and is not a normal finding (A). When lung tissue is filled with more air than normal, the voice sounds are absent or very diminished (e.g., pneumothorax, severe emphysema) (B and D).

A client is diagnosed with Cushing syndrome. Which clinical manifestation does the nurse expect to increase in a client with Cushing syndrome? Glucose level After surgical clipping of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, a client develops the syndrome of inappropriate secretion …

1. When formulating a definition of “health,” the nurse should consider that health, within its current definition, is: 1. The absence of disease 2. A function of the physiological state 3. The ability to pursue activities of daily living 4. …

Nurse Berlinda is assigned to a 41-year-old client who has a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. The nurse reviews the laboratory result, anticipating a laboratory report that indicates a serum amylase level of: a. 45 units/L b. 100 units/L c. 300 …

1) A nurse is caring for a client with hyperparathyroidism and notes that the client’s serum calcium level is 13 mg/dL. Which medication should the nurse prepare to administer as prescribed to the client? 1. Calcium chloride 2. Calcium gluconate …

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