ATI COMMUNITY HEALTH

What are community health nurses concerned with?
protecting, promoting, preserving and maintaining health, as well as preventing disease.

How should community nurses use their resources.
Must benefit the greatest number of citizens.

What is epidemiology?
invenstigative study of disease trends in populations to prevent disease and maintain health.

The agent
animate or inanimate object that causes the disease. (bacteria, virus, pesticide, food additive, etc.)

The host
living being that is affected by the agent. (human or animal).

The environment
the setting or surrounding that sustains the host (place of transmission: daycare, body of water, country

Incidence:
number of new cases in the population at a specific time divided by population total X 1,000= number per 1,000

Prevalence:
Number of existing cases in the population at a specific time divided by population total X 1,000= number per 1,000

Mortality rate:
number of deaths divided by population total X 1,000=number per 1,000

Attack rate:
number of people exposed to a specific agent who develop the disease divided by total number of people exposed.

Development of a community health program plan
Identify the needs of community: assessment.
plan the program
implement the program
evaluate the effectiveness of program.

Primary disease prevention:
focus on prevention of the initial occurence of disease or injury. Includes nutrition counseling, family planning, smoking cessation, safety education (seat belt helmet use), prenatal classes.

Secondary prevention:
focus is on early detection of disease and treatment with goal of limiting severity and adverse effects. includes: screenings (cancer, diabetes, HTN, TB lead exposure) and treatments (STI, TB)

tertiary prevention:
focus is on maximization of recovery after injury or illness. Includes: exercise rehab, nutrition counseling, case management, support groups.

Interpreters
NOT family members. Need to have health-related terminology knowledge. Give teaching material in client’s primary language.

Medicare:
older than 65 and receiving Social Security, disability benefits for 2 years, have ALS or kidney failure on dialysis or transplant to qualify.

Medicare part A
hospital care, home care, limited skilled nursing care

Part B
medical care, diagnostic services, physiotherapy.

Part C
combo of part A and B through a private insurance.

Part D
Prescription drug coverage.

Medicaide
low socioeconomic status and kids. federal and stage governmental assistance. Priority given to pregnant women, children, and those with disability.

Medicade provides:
in and outpatient hospital care. home health. radiology. vaccines for children. family planning. pregnancy-related care. screening. diagnosis. and treatment for young un’s.

Demographic
Distribution, mobility, density, census data, racial distrubution

Biological Factors:
health and disease status, genetics, race, age, gender, causes of death.

Social factors:
occupation, activities, marital status, education, income, crime rates, recreation, industry.

Social Factors:
occupation, activities, marital status, education, income, crime rates, recreation, industry

Cultural factors:
positions, roles, history, values, customs, norms, religion.

Why is education inportant:
encourages clients to be independent, and involved in the own care. families can also be involved.

What does hospice care focus on:
enhancing the quality of life through the provision of palliative care, support through the dying process.

what are some non-pharmacologic measures to reduce stress/anxiety for the dying:
dim lights, reduce, noise, cool cloth on forehead, light and brief massaging on arm or hand.

What does a fan accomlish?
helps stimulate trigeminal nerve which helps decrease feeling of dyspnea.

School nurse: case manager:
coordinates services for children who have complex health needs. EX: scheduling treatments around school shcedule.

School nurse: consultant:
provides professional health information.

what is the focus of a public health nurse:
populations and communities. confidentiality is a big concern. speak in abstract terms.

Public health nurse: core function of assessment:
investigating local health hazards.

Public health nurse: core function of policy development:
updatinglocal policies and support community health efforts.

Public health nurse: core function of assurance:
collaborate with other agencies to imporove services and ensure competence of health care workers.

Education to give to migrant farm workers:
teach about environmental health because of exposure to pesticides. TB screening, skin cancer information, and dental health screening.

When is partner violence most likely to occur?
when abused partner tries to leave.

When are majority of homicides commitedd by?
friend, acquaintance, or family member.

suicidal s/s:
giving away belongings, depression, insomnia, lack of social interaction. ASK!

Primary manifestation of syphilis:
chancre.

Secondary manifestation of syphilis:
malaise, maculopapular rash on palms, and lymphadenopathy.

Hepatitis C is spread
through blood and body fluids. eat high carb.

Hep. A
oral fecal. treat with immunoglobulin and vaccine.

Hep B
blood and body fluids. Treat with Alpha interferon.

What vaccines are safe during pregnancy:
DPT

What vaccines are not safe during pregnancy:
herpes zoster, varicella, and MMR

Meningococcal vaccine:
for those living in crowded and close quarters, over 6 weeks old.

Pertussis:
give antibiotics. check innunization. keep at home until coughing passes.

MRSA
good hand hygiene to prevent spread. no treatment available.

Anthrax exposure S/S
fever, fatigure, mild chest pain, dry cough. No contagious. fatality is 95-100% if untreated.

Treatment of anthrax:
ciprofloxacin, doxycycline with vanco and rifampin

TB transmission
airborne droplet. requires repeated close contact.

TB skin testing: false negative:
advanced HIV or AIDS, older adult, and up to 9 weeks after exposure.

TB skin testing: false positive:
vaccination with BCG for up to 10 years after.

Lyme disease:
vector borne. reportable disease by state law.

AIDS
look in mouth for sores.

Lead exposure:
old homes before 1970.

Prevention of lead exposure:
increase calcium and iron intake. Wet mop floors. cold water to amek baby formula. don’t sand wood.

Why are toxin and pollution greater in children?
increased RR rate, and drink more fluids thatn adults. kindeys don’t work as well.

Prevention of asthma attack:
stay inside dring winter. get flu shot. take rescue meds PRN not daily.

Early manifestations of alzheimers:
difficulty learning new things, forgetful

late manifestations of alzheimer’s:
withdrawal from social activities, loss of langague skills, neglecting personal hygeine.

Support groups:
focus on positive person if someone is being negative.

Diabetic shoe teaching:
extend 1/2-5/8 inches longer than the longest toe.

How to dress a stroke victum:
dress affected side first to limit neglect of that side. use hand mirror to see around self.

ginkgo balboa:
hinders coagulation. not for patients using warfarin.

Cancer screening for men:
prostate cancer for men over 40, espicially african american men.

Diabetes Mellitus for adolescent:
help plan diet, eat snack, within 2 hrs. of physical activity. test ketonswhen sick.

Peripheral IV should be changed when?
Q 72-96 hours. flushed Q8 and prn.

PICC line can last?
1 year. flushed daily.

Risk factors for gastric ulcers:
long term NSAID use. Hplori, stress, family, or personal hisotry.

1. Which item below correctly describes the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predictions by 2020? a. Positions that historically required registered nurses will be filled by unlicensed personnel. b. The job growth rate for RNs will surpass job growth in …

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A client is diagnosed with Cushing syndrome. Which clinical manifestation does the nurse expect to increase in a client with Cushing syndrome? Glucose level After surgical clipping of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, a client develops the syndrome of inappropriate secretion …

1. When formulating a definition of “health,” the nurse should consider that health, within its current definition, is: 1. The absence of disease 2. A function of the physiological state 3. The ability to pursue activities of daily living 4. …

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