Research – Exam #1; Chapters 1-3,5,6

The nurse researcher is preparing to search for practice protocols. Which of the following steps will assist in the process of nursing research? (Select all that apply)

a. conducting a systematic investigation
b. organizing existing data
c. planning strategies to search literature
d. implementation into practice
e. persistent focus

A, B, C, E

The nurse researcher is explaining the key differences between research and evidence-based practice to a new nurse researcher. Which statement best describes the relationship between research and practice?

a. research involves searching and testing available knowledge and EPB involves finding the best evidence to implement into practice
b. research is required to meet accrediting agencies requirements for continuing practice
c. evidence-based practice is based on experience and research is based on facts
d. protocols for practice are derived from research

A

The nurse researcher is exploring the relationship between health promotion and illness prevention strategies used by a variety of populations. What purpose wold this research fulfill?

a. description
b. explanation
c. prediction
d. control

a

Description involves identifying and understanding the nature of nursing phenomena and, sometimes, the relationships among them. Explanation clarifies the relationship among phenomena and identifies possible reasons why certain events occur. Through prediction, one can estimate the probability of a specific outcome in a given situation. If one can predict the outcome of a situation, the next step is to control or manipulate the situation to produce the desired outcome

The nurse researcher is conducting a synthesis of research for developing a guideline to implement and evaluate in the practice setting. What purpose would this research fulfill?

a. description
b. explanation
c. prediction
d. control

d

The nurse mentor is providing a brief lecture on the history of nursing. As a new nurse researcher, you understand that the focus of nursing research from the late 1990s through the present has been mainly:

a. characteristics of nurses and nursing roles
b. EBP
c. educational practice and methodology
d. clinical practice

b

The major purpose of the National Institute for Nursing Research is to:

a. disseminate healthcare research findings to the public
b. education and mentor nurse researchers
c. provide financial support for nursing research
d. publish major advances in clinical research

c

Examine the following statement: the nurse researcher speculates that patients who receive chemotherapy for lung cancer treatment experience vomiting as a side effect; therefore, those patients who have leukemia and receive chemotherapy will also experience nausea and vomiting. What type of reasoning is the nurse researcher using?

a. deductive
b. inductive
c. operational
d. problematic

B

Inductive reasoning moves from the specific to the general; particular instances are observed and then combined into a larger whole or a general statement.
Deductive reasoning moves from the general to the specific or from a general premise to a particular situation or conclusion. Operational refers to defining terms in the study. Problematic/problem assists the researcher in identifying the research focus

Examine the following statement: The nurse researcher speculates that nausea and vomiting are common side effects of chemotherapy; therefore, patients who have leukemia and are being treated with chemotherapy will most likely have nausea and vomiting. What type of reasoning is the nurse researcher using?

a. deductive
b. inductive
c. operational
d. problematic

A

The nurse educator would like to design an orientation program for the medical/surgical unit. the researcher finds a phenomenological study conducted by Benner (1984), which describes how clinical knowledge and expertise is gained through experience. What type of knowledge is being highlighted in this study?

a. borrowing knowledge
b. personal experience
c. traditions
d. trial and error

b

A nurse is using theories from psychology to expand her understanding of the grief process. This is an example of which way of acquiring knowledge for nursing practice?

a. authority
b. borrowing
c. reasoning
d. traditions

b

A new registered nurse has formed a close relationship with an experienced nurse so that he or she might learn facets of nursing practice by imitating the behavior of the expert nurse. This is an example of which way of acquiring knowledge for nursing practice?

a. authority
b. personal experience
c. role modeling
d. trial and error

C

The nurse would like to research patients’ perceptions of pain. The nurse focuses on qualitative studies. What characteristic will likely be included in the qualitative research studies?

a. basic elements of analysis consist of numbers
b. a basis of theory development is a characteristic
c. data are analyzed with statistics
d. generalization of findings is important

B

Qualitative research is conducted to develop theory. Testing of theory, numbers for data, analysis with statistics, and generalization of findings are all characteristics of quantitative research

The nurse is researching the incidence of pressure ulcers with a new skin care ointment to determine the cause-and-effect interactions among variables. This is known as which type of research?

A. correlational research
b. descriptive research
c. grounded theory research
d. quasi-experimental research

D

Quasi-experimental research is a type of quantitative research that involves the systematic investigation of cause-and-effect interactions among variables.

The nurse researcher is examining research that was developed by the discipline of anthropology for investigating cultures through an in-depth study of the members of the culture. This is known as which type of research?

a. grounded theory research
b. ethnographic research
c. historical research
d. phenomenological research

b

A study is entitled, “The Use of Massage as an Intervention for Decreasing Low Back Pain.” Based on this title, how would the nurse appraise this type of research?

a. correlational research
b. descriptive research
c. ethnographic research
d. quasi-experimental research

D

The title indicates that the study is quasi-experimental; this type of study examines the cause-and-effect relationship between independent and dependent variables. The title of the study identifies an intervention of massage (independent variable) and an outcome of decreasing low back pain (dependent variable).

Braden developed a scale to assess a patient’s risk for developing a pressure ulcer. Patients admitted to a hospital are assessed for their risk of pressure ulcer development and are provided interventions to prevent ulcers. This is an example of knowledge that can be used to ___________ outcomes in practice.

A. control
b. describe
c. explain
d. predict

A

Control can be described as the ability to write a prescription to produce the desired outcome(s) in practice. Nurses can implement specific interventions in their care plans to help patients achieve positive health outcomes and in this example to prevent pressure ulcer development.

A nurse researcher conducted a study to describe the experience of living with chronic pain. What type of study best generates this type of knowledge?

A. correlational study
b. grounded theory study
c. ethnographic study
d. phenomenological study

d

Phenomenological research is an inductive, descriptive approach used to describe an experience as it is lived by an individual, such as the lived experience of chronic pain

A nurse conducted a study to determine the patient and financial outcomes for using a particular type of treatment protocol for managing pressure ulcers. Based on this description, how would the nurse appraise this type of study?

a. correlational study
b. outcomes study
c. qualitative study
d. quantitative study

B

Outcomes research focuses on examining the results of care, such as determining the changes in health status for the patient and the financial outcomes for providing care.

The inductive research technique used to formulate, test, and refine a theory about a particular phenomenon is called:

a. anthropological research
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological research
d. outcomes research

b

Grounded theory research is an inductive research technique that is used to formulate, test, and refine a theory about a particular phenomenon. Anthropological research is the in-depth study of the members of the culture. Phenomenological research is an inductive, descriptive approach used to describe an experience as it is lived by an individual, such as the lived experience of chronic pain. Outcomes research focuses on examining the results of care, such as determining the changes in health status for the patient and the financial outcomes for providing care

An experienced nurse was caring for a patient following surgery and had a gut-level feeling that the patient was going to have severe complications. This way of acquiring knowledge is best described as:

a. authority
b. intuition
c. tradition
d. trial and error

b

A nursing student in a BSN program is required to take a research course before graduation. Which of the following learning outcomes will the nursing student acquire?

a. conduct research in health care settings
b. critique research articles for clinical usefulness
c. lead research teams in making changes as a result of research findings
d. mentor novice researchers and maintain a program of research

b

The nurse researcher is critically appraising a research study. Which of the following statements best describes a critique of research?

a. careful examination of a study to evaluate its strengths, limitations, meaning, and significance
b. comprehensive review of a study to determine its applicability to nursing
c. thoughtful discussion of the generalization of the study to similar situations
d. unbiased appraisal of the study’s reliability and validity

A

A critical appraisal of research involves careful examination of all aspects of a study to judge its strengths, limitations, meaning, and significance. A comprehensive review is a part of discerning credible sources and the literature review process. Discussion can be included in the implementation and planning phases of research. Unbiased appraisal can be accomplished by determining the level of evidence associated with the research study.

The nurse manager is charged with reviewing a patient satisfaction survey to determine the effectiveness of nursing care. This is an example of which type of research?

a. efficacy research
b. outcomes research
c. quality assessment research
b. quality assurance research

b

Outcomes research focuses on examining the results of care and determining the changes in health status for the patient and the health care system. Efficacy is a term used in meta-analysis. Quality assessment and assurance are types of outcomes research.

The nursing mentor is providing a lecture on the types of nursing research. As a new nurse researcher you understand that quantitative research differs from qualitative research in the following ways: (Select all that apply.)

a. the results of quantitative research may be generalized to the population from which the sample was drawn, but qualitative research is not, strictly speaking, generalizable
b. quantitative research is easy to read and understand, but qualitative research is difficult
c. quantitative research is difficult to conduct because it contains statistics, but qualitative research is easy because it contains only words
d. quantitative research has a design, and qualitative research does not
e. quantitative research provides answers to “what” and “who questions, and qualitative research focuses more on “how” and “why”questions

A, E

Qualitative research is a systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning. Knowledge generated from qualitative research will provide meaning and understanding of specific emotions, values, life experiences, and historical events. The quantitative and qualitative types of research complement each other because they generate different kinds of knowledge that are useful in nursing practice. Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies have some similarities because both require researcher expertise, involve rigor in implementation, and result in the generation of scientific knowledge for nursing practice. Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world. Generalization is associated with quantitative research as it involves the application of trends or general tendencies (which are identified by studying a sample) to the population from which the research sample was drawn.

The nurse researcher determines that published research is qualitative if it demonstrates which characteristic?

a. it lacks a purpose statement
b. it depends on surveys for data
c. it provides no suggestions for practice
d. it present results as a narrative

d

Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world. Qualitative research is also systematic but is an interactive and subjective approach to describe life experiences and give them meaning. Both types of research have a purpose statement and can use a survey instrument; however, neither depends on surveys for data. Both result in the generation of scientific knowledge for nursing practice. Qualitative research data are in the form of words, whereas quantitative data are in the form of numbers.

The nurse researcher conducts a literature review and discovers a research article entitled, “The Effect of Massage to Decrease Musculoskeletal Pain: an Intervention Study.” Based on this title, what type of research was employed for this study?

a. applied
b. basic
c. correlational
d. descriptive

a

Applied research is scientific investigation conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve clinical practice. Basic research is scientific investigation involving the pursuit of knowledge for knowledge’s sake or for the pleasure of learning and finding truth.

In comparing the nursing process and research process, one can say that the evaluation and modification step of the nursing process has similarities with which of the following steps of the research process?

a. data collection and analysis
b. methodology
c. outcomes and dissemination of findings
d. problem and purpose identification

C

The evaluation and modification step of the nursing process is similar to the outcomes and dissemination steps of the research process because both are the final phase of each process. These final steps both involved examining the outcomes and the effectiveness of each process.

The nurse researcher is conducting a research study in a highly controlled environment. This is an example of what type of study?

A. phenomenology
b. experimental
c. ethnography
d. case study

b

A nurse researcher studied parenting behavior of new parents. The researcher conducted observations and interviews with the parents in their home. What type of setting was used for this study?

a. experimental setting
b. field setting
c. highly controlled setting
d. partially controlled setting

b

A nurse researcher was studying the effect of a cardiac rehabilitation program on the heart rate, respiratory rate, and functional status of patients 2 months after a myocardial infarction. The study was conducted in the rehabilitation center where the researcher controlled the consistent implementation of the treatment. What type of setting was used for this study?

a. experimental
b. natural
c. highly controlled
d. partially controlled

D

The cardiac rehabilitation center provides a partially controlled setting for this study because the environment is manipulated or modified in some way by the researcher so the treatment might be consistently implemented. An experimental setting is simulated to replicate an actual setting. A natural setting is an uncontrolled, real-life situation where a study might be conducted. Highly controlled environments are usually lab settings where the researcher can manipulate the environment.

The purpose of a study was to identify caring behavior desired by patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This purpose statement indicates that this is probably a/an:

a. correlational study
b. descriptive study
c. experimental study
d. quasi-experimental study

b

This purpose statement is consistent with descriptive research, which is conducted to explore, identify, and describe phenomena in real-life situations.

The nurse researcher states “People want to maintain control of their own health problems.” This is an example of which of the following?

a. assumption
b. framework
d. methodological limitation
d. theoretical limitation

a

This statement is an example of an assumption. Assumptions are statements that are taken for granted or are considered true, even though these statements have not been scientifically tested.

The nurse researcher is evaluating a study that had a sample size of 15 subjects, and 5 of the subjects dropped out of the study before it was completed. This situation is an example of a/an:

a. assumption limitation
b. framework limitation
c. methodological limitation
d. theoretical limitation

c

Methodological limitations are restrictions in the study design that limit the credibility of the findings and the population to which the findings can be generalized. Examples of methodological limitations include small sample size, large sample mortality, measurement methods with inadequate reliability and validity, and poorly controlled treatment.

A nurse researcher conducted a study with Becker’s health belief model as the framework for the study. The researcher did not provide conceptual definitions for the variables. This is an example of a/an:

a. assumption limitation
b. framework limitation
c. methodological limitation
d. theoretical limitation

d

Theoretical limitations are weaknesses in the study framework, and conceptual and operational definitions that restrict the abstract generalization of the findings. Omitting the conceptual definitions of the variables is a theoretical limitation.

A study has a poorly developed method for measuring spiritual distress. This is an example of which of the following?

a. assumption limitation
b. framework limitation
c. methodological limitation
d. theoretical limitation

c

Methodological limitations are restrictions in the study design that limit the credibility of the findings and the population to which the findings can be generalized. Examples of methodological limitations include small sample size, large sample mortality, poorly constructed measurement methods, and poorly controlled treatment.

A nurse researcher was summarizing the research to determine the latest technique for giving intramuscular (IM) injections. The researcher summarized what was known and not known about giving IM injections. This is an example of ________ sources.

a. analyzing
b. comprehending
c. skimming
d. synthesizing

d

Synthesizing sources involves clustering and interrelating ideas from several sources to develop an understanding of what is known and not known about an area of concern or research problem.

The nurse researcher conducts a quick review, and reads and critiques research sources to gain a broad overview of the content. This is an example of which of the following?

a. analyzing
b. comprehending
c. skimming
d. synthesizing

c

Skimming is a process that involves quickly reviewing sources by reading the title, author’s name, abstract, introduction section, headings, and discussion section to gain a broad overview of the content.

The nurse researcher is conducting a lecture series on how to report research findings. The researcher begins with an overview of the four major parts most often included in a research report. Which of the following would be included in this overview?

a. introduction, literature review, design, and findings
b. introduction, methods, results, and discussion
c. problem, framework, methods, and discussion
d. review of literature, methods, results, and findings

b

The nurse researcher is conducting a lecture series on how to report research findings. A participant raises her hand and asks “In which section would I include the implications of the findings for nursing and the recommendations for further research?” What is the researcher’s best response?

a. the discussion section
b. the introduction section
c. the methods section
d. the results section

a

The discussion section of the research report includes the major findings, limitations of the study, conclusions drawn from the findings, implications of the findings for nursing, and recommendations for further research.

The nurse researcher is conducting a lecture series on how to report research findings. A participant raises his or her hand and asks “Which section in the research report would one read to obtain a clear, concise summary of the study?” What is the researcher’s best response?

a. abstract
b. discussion of findings
c. research purpose
d. review of literature

a

The abstract provides a clear, concise summary of the study at the beginning of the research report. The discussion section of the research report includes the major findings, limitations of the study, conclusions drawn from the findings, implications of the findings for nursing, and recommendations for further research.

In reading a research report, the nurse researcher notes that depression was measured with the Beck depression inventory. The scale is an example of a/an:

a. conceptual definition
b. framework proposition
c. framework concept
d. operational definition

d

Operational definitions provide a description of how each variable will be measured or manipulated in the study. Thus the Beck depression scale is an operational definition for the variable, depression.

A nurse researcher developed a descriptive correlational blueprint for conducting a study to examine hopelessness and anxiety in patients who are diagnosed with breast cancer. This statement clarifies which of the following steps of the research process?

a. data collection
b. design
c. framework
d. measurement

b

A descriptive correlation design is identified for this study and the design is the blueprint for conducting a study.

The nurse researcher is implementing a treatment of a low-calorie diet to determine the impact of the diet on body weight. This is an example of what type of study?

a. correlational
b. descriptive
c. exploratory
d. quasi-experimental

d

A quasi-experimental study is a type of quantitative research conducted to determine causality by examining the impact of a treatment (independent variable of low-calorie diet) on a dependent variable (body weight).

The nurse researcher is skimming research studies to find the study with the highest control. Which of the following samples would yield the least bias?

a. assess subjects for mortality threats
b. assigns subjects to contrasted groups
c. establishes comparison groups
d. randomly assigns subjects to a treatment and control group

d

To increase the control and rigor of a study and to decrease the potential for bias (slanting of findings away from what is true or accurate), the subjects who are part of a convenience sample often are randomly assigned to the treatment group or to the control (no treatment) group in quasi-experimental and experimental studies.

The nurse researcher is searching the literature for a study that examines the relationships between two or more variables. Which type of research is the nurse seeking?

a. correlational
b. descriptive
c. experimental
d. quasi-experimental

a

Correlational research involves the systematic investigation of relationships between or among variables. Experimental research is an objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice. Descriptive studies are usually conducted with large numbers of subjects, in natural settings, with no manipulation of the situation in any way. Quasi-experimental studies differ from experimental studies by the level of control achieved by the researcher.

The nurse researcher is searching the literature for a study that examines the examination of cause and effect relationships in partially controlled settings. Which type of research is the nurse seeking?

a. correlational
b. descriptive
c. experimental
d. quasi-experimental

d

Quasi-experimental studies differ from experimental studies by the level of control achieved by the researcher. Correlational research involves the systematic investigation of relationships between or among variables. Descriptive studies are usually conducted with large numbers of subjects, in natural settings, with no manipulation of the situation in any way. Experimental research is an objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice.

The nurse researcher is searching the literature for a study that examines a new area of research where little information is available. Which type of research is the nurse seeking?

a. correlational
b. descriptive
c. experimental
d. quasi-experimental

b

Descriptive studies are usually conducted with large numbers of subjects, in natural settings, with no manipulation of the situation in any way. Correlational research involves the systematic investigation of relationships between or among variables. Experimental research is an objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice. Quasi-experimental studies differ from experimental studies by the level of control achieved by the researcher.

The nurse researcher is searching the literature for a study that is highly controlled study that is often conducted in a laboratory setting. Which type of research is the nurse seeking?

a. correlational
b. descriptive
c. experimental
d. quasi-experimental

c

Experimental research is an objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice. Descriptive studies are usually conducted with large numbers of subjects, in natural settings, with no manipulation of the situation in any way. Quasi-experimental studies differ from experimental studies by the level of control achieved by the researcher.

The nurse knows that __________________ is conducted to generate and refine theory, and is frequently not directly useful in practice.

a. applied research
b. basic research
c. translational research
d. outcomes research

b

Basic scientific investigation seeks new knowledge about health phenomena with the hope of establishing general principles. The purpose of basic research is to generate and refine theory; thus the findings frequently are not directly useful in practice. Translational research or outcomes research are very similar in that they both involve using applied research that has been proven to be effective for evidence-based practice.

The nurse on a medical surgical unit would like to use the research process to find a solution to the current infection rates for postsurgical patients. Which type of research would be employed?

a. applied research
b. basic research
c. translational research
d. outcomes research

a

Applied research (or practical research) is scientific investigation conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve clinical practice. The purpose of applied research is to solve problems, make decisions, or predict or control outcomes in real-life practice situations. Translational research or outcomes research are very similar in that they both involve using applied research that has been proven to be effective for evidence-based practice.

The nursing researcher is conducting a qualitative research study. The nurse researcher believes there are multiple perceptions of reality. This belief is known as:

a. worldview
b. deductive reasoning
c. knowledge
d. phenomena

a

According to qualitative philosophy, reality is based on perceptions and is different for each person. This is known as a worldview. Deductive reasoning is involved in problem identification and hypothesis development. Knowledge is based on factual information. Phenomena are the experiences that comprise the lives of humans.

The new nurse researcher is comparing the difference between the rigors of qualitative research and quantitative research. Which components would be included in the rigor for qualitative research?

a. availability, bias, and significance
b. openness and adherence to the philosophical orientation
c. predicting, confidentiality, and anonymity
d. sampling, partitioning, and setting

b

In qualitative research, rigor is associated with openness, scrupulous adherence to a philosophical perspective, thoroughness in collecting data, and consideration of all the data in the subjective theory development phase. Availability, bias, and significance are not key terms related to rigor. Prediction is associated with quantitative research. Confidentiality and anonymity are important considerations in any human subjects’ research. Sampling, partitioning, and setting are not key terms related to rigor.

The research question of a phenomenological study of the birth of a first child might be which of the following?

a. is the experience of having a first child different from that of having additional children?
b. how was the experience of having a first child changed in this generation?
c. what are the symbols associated with having a first child?
d. what is the meaning of one’s lived experience of having a first child?

d

The focus of phenomenological research is to describe experiences of the subjects as they are lived. This requires that the person interpret the experience for the researcher. The difference between experiences would be an example of correlational research. How an experience changes when a variable changes is an example of a causal-comparative/quasi-experimental research. The symbols associated with having a first child would best be examined using an historical approach.

Grounded theory is based on the belief that:

a. actions and interactions can be explained only by studying the individuals within a group rather than the group itself
b. group life is based on consensus and shared meaning
c. predicting the symbolic meanings of another individual is based on the groups to which the individual belongs
d. symbolic meanings are the same for all individuals

b

In social life, meanings are shared by groups. Grounded theory holds that the meaning of such things is derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with others and the society.

Auditability is similar to which step of the qualitative research process?

a. data analysis
b. data collection
c. methods
d. research design

a

Data analysis is conducted to reduce, organize, and give meaning to the data.

A researcher analyzing data from a grounded theory study is categorizing several attributes under three major headings. This is an example of:

a. coding
b. counting
c. marginal remarks
d. reflective remarks

c

Organization of data, selection of specific elements of the data for categories, and naming these categories reflect the philosophical base of the study and are the beginning of data reduction.

The stage of qualitative data analysis in which the researcher attaches meaning to elements of the data is:

a. analysis
b. description
c. external criticism
d. interpretation

b

in description the researcher attaches meaning and discovers classes of elements.

A researcher is analyzing data from a study describing the sequential key events of a patient’s account of his or her stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). This type of analysis best describes:

a. coding
b. counting
c. narrative analysis
d. reflective remarks

c

Narrative analysis is used to examine data obtained from storytelling.

An article entitled, “The Lived Experiences of Perinatal Loss,” would most likely describe which form of qualitative research?

a. ethnography
b. grounded theory
c. historical research
d. phenomenology

d

Phenomenology focuses on lived human experiences.

An article entitled, “The Basic Process of Elder Parenting,” best describes which type of research?

a. ethnography
b. grounded theory
c. historical research
d. phenomenology

b

Grounded theory focuses on the social process between individuals, and individuals and society.

An article entitled, “The Enculturalization of Nursing Students: on Becoming Timely,” best describes which type of research?

a. ethnography
b. grounded theory
c. historical research
d. phenomenology

a

Ethnography focuses on the study of cultures within society.

An article entitled, “The Importance of the End-of-Shift Reporting: the Art of Storytelling,” best describes which type of research?

a. ethnography
b. grounded theory
c. historical research
d. phenomenology

c

Narrative analysis focuses on the study of storytelling

One criterion not usually found in participant selection in qualitative studies is:

a. the ability to communicate effectively
b. differing perspectives on the phenomenon being studied
c. experience with the phenomenon being studies
d. random selection of participants

d

Random selection is a characteristic of sampling selection for quantitative research.

A research article states that “participants were recommended by others already in the study.” This is an example of:

a. convenience sampling
b. quota sampling
c. random sampling
d. snowball sampling

d

In snowball sampling, the researcher asks the participants to recommend others in circumstances similar to theirs.

What best describes the relationship between researcher and participant in a qualitative study?

a. colleagues
b. friends
c. researcher and subject
d. teacher and learner

a

Participants in qualitative research are not research subjects in the usual sense of the word; they are colleagues.

The primary data collection method used by qualitative researchers is:

a. measurement of physiological variables
b. observation
c. reading written materials
d. surveys

b

Observation is a fundamental method of gathering data for qualitative studies.

Data management in qualitative studies can involve:

a. coding data using categories, colored pens, and notes in the margin
b. entering data into a computer
c. organizing and storing notes on small bits of paper
d. all of the above

d

A nurse wishes to study the traditions within the profession. Which type of qualitative research would provide the best approach?

a. ethnography
b. grounded theory
c. historical research
d. phenomenology

a

Qualitative research examining storytelling uses which of the following methods?

a. analyzing
b. bracketing
c. categorizing
d. coding

a

Analyzing stories is the method used in storytelling.

Storytelling is analyzed using which of the following methods?

a. data displays
b. narrative analysis
c. reflexive analysis
d. theoretical maps

b

The research method that describes experiences as they are lived is called:

a. ethnography
b. grounded theory
c. historical
d. phenomenology

d

The process of putting aside what the researcher knows about a particular experience in phenomenological research is best described as:

a. bracketing experiences
b. orderly thinking
c. sequential inquiry
d. statistical computations

a

In some phenomenological research, this critical thinking leads to bracketing, which is used to help the researcher avoid misinterpreting the phenomenon as it is being experienced by the participants. Bracketing is suspending or laying aside what the researcher knows about the experience being studied.

Match the definition with the type of research. Investigating data to arrive at conclusions based on real-life behaviors:

a. grounded theory research
b. ethnonursing research
c.qualitative research
d. historical research
e. ethnographic research
f. phenomenological research

a

Grounded theory is based on symbolic interaction theory, which holds many views in common with phenomenology. George Herbert Mead (1934), a social psychologist, was a leader in the development of symbolic interaction theory. This theory explores how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to their actions.

Match the definition with the type of research.Studies of human life experiences

a. grounded theory research
b. ethnonursing research
c.qualitative research
d. historical research
e. ethnographic research
f. phenomenological research

f

Match the definition with the type of research. Descriptive study involving subculture attributes

a. grounded theory research
b. ethnonursing research
c.qualitative research
d. historical research
e. ethnographic research
f. phenomenological research

e

Match the definition with the type of research. Studies that scientifically examine specific events from the past:

a. grounded theory research
b. ethnonursing research
c.qualitative research
d. historical research
e. ethnographic research
f. phenomenological research

d

Match the definition with the type of research. Focuses on observing and documenting interactions with people to determine how daily life conditions and patterns influence care, health, and nursing practices:

a. grounded theory research
b. ethnonursing research
c.qualitative research
d. historical research
e. ethnographic research
f. phenomenological research

b

Edel and colleagues (1998) learned that “[t]he area under the nails and the area around the nail beds harbor large numbers of organisms even after vigorous cleansing and scrubbing . . . Furthermore, nails and the cuticles are subject to many different conditions and infections, particularly fungal . . . A limited number of studies have been conducted to determine the relationship of artificial nails to bacterial colonization” (p. 54). This is an example of which of the following?

a. research problem
b. research purpose
c. study framework
d. treatment or independent variable

a

This is an example of a significant nursing research problem because it identifies an area of concern and a gap in the current knowledge needed for practice

Use the following excerpt of a published study to answer the question: Edel and colleagues (1998) stated that their study was conducted “to determine whether differences exist in the presence and type of microbes found on the nails and nail beds of OR (operating room) personnel with natural, polished, or artificial nails before and after a 5-minute surgical scrub” (p. 55). This is an example of which of the following?

a. conceptual definition of independent variable
b. research problem
c. research purpose
d. research topic

c

The example is the research purpose for the study because it presents the specific goal or aim of the study that is generated from the research problem. The conceptual definitions clearly define the variable being researched. The research problem is what clinical issue is being examined. The research topic is the broad classification. The research problem stems from the research topic.

Use the following excerpt of a published study to answer the question: Which of the following correctly identifies a variable in the above study? The:

a. 5-minute surgical scrub is the dependent variable
b. nails and nail beds of OR personnel are a demographic variable
c. OR is an extraneous environmental variable for the study
d. presence and type of microbes are dependent variables

d

Presence and type of microbes are the dependent variables that were measured to determine the impact of the independent variable, 5-minute scrub. The OR is the setting and the population is the OR nurses’ nails and nail beds.

Examining the researcher’s expertise, money commitment, availability of subjects, and the study’s ethical considerations are important in critiquing which of the following?

a. clarity of the study purpose
b. feasibility of the study
c. objectivity of the study
d. study’s significance in developing nursing knowledge

b

Examining the researcher’s expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects, facility and equipment; and the study’s ethical considerations are done to determine the study’s feasibility.

A nurse is conducting a study that addresses one of the research priorities identified by the National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR), which is an example of a/n:

a. feasible study for a new researcher
b. landmark study for nursing
c. objective study
d. significant study for nursing

d

A study’s significance is determined by whether the knowledge generated in the study affects nursing practice, builds on previous research, promotes theory testing or development, and/or addresses current research priorities in nursing.

In some studies, researchers make a formal statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables in a specified population. This formal statement is a:

a. hypothesis
b. research objective
c. research purpose
d. research question

a

A hypothesis is a formal statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables in a specified population.

Hypothesis: Patients with cancer using guided-imagery relaxation have less reported pain, use fewer pain medications, and have less reported anxiety than those cancer patients not using a relaxation technique. Which of the following best describes this hypothesis?

a. complex, causal, research hypothesis
b. complex, nondirectional, null hypothesis
c. simple, causal, research hypothesis
d. simple directional research hypothesis

a

The hypothesis is a complex (more than two variables), causal (cause and effect relationship), directional (predicts dependent variables will be less with the treatment), research hypothesis (states a relationship exists).

Hypothesis: Patients with cancer using guided-imagery relaxation have less reported pain, use fewer pain medications, and have less reported anxiety than those cancer patients not using a relaxation technique. What is the independent variable in the above hypothesis?

a. guided-imagery relaxation
b. reported anxiety
c. reported pain
d. use of pain medications

a

The independent variable or treatment is guided-imagery relaxation. Reported anxiety, reported pain, and use of pain medications are the dependent variables.

Hypothesis: Patients with cancer using guided-imagery relaxation have less reported pain, use fewer pain medications, and have less reported anxiety than those cancer patients not using a relaxation technique. Reported pain was determined by having the patients complete an instrument entitled perception of pain scale. This is an example of:

a. conceptual definition
b. intervention or treatment protocol
c. link of the variable to the framework
d. operational definition

d

Operational definition provides a description of how variables will be measured or manipulated in a study. Thus the operational definition of reported pain is the measurement of the variable with the perception of pain scale.

A researcher conducted a study to “(1) describe the heart rate and perception of pain of adults having an IV started before surgery and (2) to explore their satisfaction with care before surgery.” This is an example of which of the following?

a. hypotheses
b. research objectives
c. research problem
d. research questions

b

These are research objectives that are clear, concise, declarative statements that are expressed to direct a study and are focused on exploration, identification, and description of variables and/or determination of the relationships among variables.

If a study was conducted “to describe the heart rate and perception of pain of adults having an IV started before surgery,” what type of variable is heart rate?

a. demographic
b. extraneous
c. independent
d. research

d

Heart rate is the research variable or what was measured in this descriptive study. Research variables or research concepts, not independent and dependent variables, are usually studied in descriptive and correlational quantitative studies and qualitative studies.

The following hypothesis was stated in a study: “Nurses with more experience in caring for patients with HIV have lower fear of HIV contagion.” Which of the following best describes this hypothesis?

a. complex, associative, direction hypothesis
b. complex, causal, directional hypothesis
c. simple, associative, directional hypothesis
d. simple, causal, nondirectional hypothesis

c

This is a simple (only two variables), associative (identifies a noncausal relationship), directional (more experience and lower fear of HIV contagion), research hypothesis.

Many studies describe the age, ethnic background, and gender of the subjects. These are examples of what type of variables?

a. demographic
b. dependent
c. extraneous
d. independent

a

Demographic or attribute variables are collected to describe the sample. Age, ethnic background, and gender are common demographic variables used to describe a study’s sample.

A study focused on “the lived experience of being critically ill in an intensive care unit.” This is an example of which of the following?

a. qualitative study purpose
b. quantitative study purpose
c. research hypothesis
d. research objective

a

This is an example purpose of a phenomenological qualitative study. The purpose of a qualitative study indicates the focus of the study, which is usually broader than the focus of a quantitative study. The focus might be a concept, such as depression; a lived experience, such as being critically ill in an intensive care unit; an event, such as loss of a child; or a facet of a culture, such as the healing practices of Native Americans.

The purpose of a quantitative study was to examine the effects of biofeedback on hypertension in African Americans. Which of the following statements is accurate?

a. african american men are the population
b. biofeedback is the outcome variable
c. hypertension is the dependent variable
d. this study is a quantitative study of the correlational study

c

Hypertension is the dependent or outcome variable in the study that was to be measured to determine the impact of the independent or treatment variable, biofeedback. This is a quasi-experimental study with a population of African American men and women.

Identify the type of hypothesis in this example: “Patients using biofeedback have lower systolic and diastolic pressures than those not using biofeedback.”

a. complex, associative, directional hypothesis
b. complex, causal, directional hypothesis
c. simple, associative, directional hypothesis
d. simple, causal, nondirectional hypothesis

b

This hypothesis is complex because it has more than two variables (biofeedback, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure); causal because it has an independent or treatment variable (biofeedback) and dependent or outcome variables (systolic and diastolic pressures); and directional because all causal hypotheses are directional.

In the hypothesis “Patients using biofeedback have lower systolic and diastolic pressures than those not using biofeedback.” What type of variable is biofeedback?

a. demographic
b. dependent
c. extraneous
d. independent

d

Biofeedback is the independent or treatment variable that is manipulated in the study to produce an effect on the dependent variable of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

A study examined the effect of biofeedback on blood pressure in African Americans. Tight clothing and crossing of legs can increase blood pressure. What type of variables are these two attributes?

a. demographic
b. dependent
c. extraneous
d. independent

c

Tight clothing and crossing legs are extraneous variables that exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables.

Identify the type of hypothesis presented in this example: “Children from low-income families experience more parental abuse.”

a. complex, associative, directional hypothesis
b. complex, causal, directional hypothesis
c. simple, associative, direction hypothesis
d. simple, causal, directional hypothesis

c

This is a simple (only two variables), associative (identifies a noncausal relationship), directional (more parental abuse), research hypothesis.

Lange, J. W. (2002). Patient identification of caregivers’ titles: do they know who you are? Applied Nursing Research, 15(1), 11-18. “This study investigated patients’ ability to identify licensed nurses and unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) and whether this knowledge is related to satisfaction with care.” (p. 11) What type of variable is satisfaction with care?

a. dependent
b. extraneous
c. independent
d. research

d

Satisfaction with care is a research variable that is measured in this descriptive study. The study lacks a treatment or independent variable and thus has no dependent variable.

The study hypothesis was: “Patients’ satisfaction would vary with their ability to recall the names and job titles of their caregivers.” (pp. 11-12) What type of hypothesis is this?

a. complex, associative, nondirectional hypothesis
b. complex, causal, directional hypothesis
c. simple, associative, directional hypothesis
d. simple, causal, nondirectional hypothesis

a

This is a complex (more than two variables—satisfaction, names, and job titles); associative (focuses on relationships and not cause and effect); nondirectional (varies but does not indicate the direction of the relationship) research hypothesis.

What is the research variable in the research question, “Is there a relationship between anxiety levels of baccalaureate nursing students and their test scores on the nursing research final examination?”

a. anxiety levels
b. baccalaureate nursing students
c. research examination

a

Research variables or concepts are the qualities, properties, or characteristics identified in the research purpose and objectives or questions that are observed or measured in a study. Research variables or concepts are used when the intent of the study is to observe or measure variables as they exist in a natural setting without the implementation of a treatment. Anxiety is the variable that is being measured.

In the following hypothesis statement, “Students with a ‘C’ average who receive tutoring on an individual basis are more compliant with studying than those who receive tutoring in a group setting,” Which is the independent variable?

a. “c” average
b. compliance
c. individual versus group setting
d. type of tutoring

d

An independent variable is an intervention or treatment that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. The type of tutoring is the variable that is being manipulated as some students are receiving individual tutoring and others are being tutored in a group setting.

The greater the degree of sleep deprivation, the higher the anxiety level of critical care patients. Which of the following classifications best fits this hypothesis?

a. associative, directional
b. associative, nondirectional
c. causal, directional
d. causal, nondirectional

a

An associative hypothesis proposes relationships among variables that occur or exist together in the real world, so that when one variable changes, the other changes. A directional hypothesis states the nature (positive or negative) of the interaction between two or more variables. The use of terms such as positive, negative, less, more, increase, decrease, greater, higher, or lower in a hypothesis indicates the direction of the relationship. This hypothesis states a relationship among sleep deprivation and anxiety levels and indicates a directional level by use of the words greater and higher.

Perceived control over health is the score on the questionnaire assessing the extent to which elders feel their health is under their own control. This is an example of which of the following types of definitions?

a. conceptual
b. hypothetical
c. operational
d. statistical

c

Operational definitions are derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable. In this instance, the researcher derived the definition

What is the primary purpose for reviewing the literature in quantitative research?

a. direct the data collection and analysis step of a study
b. gain a broad understanding of the information available related to a problem
c. select a research design and detail the treatment or intervention to be used in a study
d. specify research objectives, questions, and hypotheses to be addressed by the study

b

The primary purpose for reviewing the literature is to gain a broad background or understanding of the information available related to a problem. Secondarily, researchers seek information that will guide them in developing the methodology of a study.

Theses, dissertations, and studies of clinical nursing problems are examples of which of the following types of literature?

a. clinical
b. empirical
c. lay
d. theoretical

b

Theses, dissertations, and studies of clinical nursing problems are examples of empirical literature because they are all research projects.

What type of source is written by the person who originated it or is responsible for generating the ideas?

a. academic lecture
b. primary
c. literature review
d. textbook

b

A primary source is a source that is written by the person who originated it or is responsible for generating the ideas published. An academic lecture, literature review, and textbook are considered secondary sources.

Which of the following is not an essential step in summarizing research literature to determine its usefulness for practice?

a. conducting a computer search of the literature
b. locating all sources on a clinical problem
c. reading and critiquing relevant sources
d. synthesizing the sources in a literature review

b

Not all sources must be located on a selected topic because only the relevant sources need to be located and included in the literature review.

Which of the following databases is the most helpful in locating research sources that might be summarized for use in nursing practice?

a. bioethicsline
b. cancerlit
c. cinahl
d. medline

c

Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Information System is the online version for CINAHL that was initiated in 1983 and has the most extensive listing of nursing sources.

A primary step in appraising a literature review is to evaluate the:

a. clarity of the purpose of the study
b. fit of the research design to the method used
c. relevance of the sources cited
d. soundness of the research used as sources

c

It is important that the sources in a literature review be relevant. One would not expect to find secondary sources, studies published in the last year, or abstracts of studies in a literature review.

Which U.S. government agency commissions syntheses of studies to determine the evidence base for clinical practice?

a. the cochrane collaboration
b. sigma theta tau
c. evidence-based nursing
d. the agency for healthcare research an quality

d

AHRQ is the only government agency listed, and this agency has the responsibility for commissioning syntheses of studies to develop an evidence base for practice.

Which section of the literature review includes a concise presentation of the current knowledge base for a clinical practice problem, including what is known and not known?

a. introduction
b. theoretical literature
c. empirical literature
d. summary

d

The summary of a literature review includes a concise presentation of the current knowledge base for a clinical practice problem, including what is known and not known about the problem.

While critiquing a review of the literature, the reader notes a citation with an author’s name that differs from the name of the originating source. The reader recognizes this as an example of what type of publication?

a. empirical
b. primary
c. secondary
d. theoretical

c

Secondary sources summarize or paraphrase from the original work.

Empirical literature includes which of the following sources?

a. concept analyses
b. integrated reviews
c. published studies
d. theoretical positions

c

Published studies are the only form of literature listed that is considered to be empirical literature.

grounded theorists review the literature to:

a. compare findings from the present study to determine similarities and differences
b. direct the planning and execution of a study
c. explain, support, and extend the theory generated in the study
d. provide a general understanding of the phenomenon to be studies

c

Grounded theorists use the literature review to primarily support, explain, and generate theory from the findings of the study. Only a minimal or cursory review is done before data collection

A researcher wishes to conduct a literature search on the topic, “spousal support for breastfeeding mothers.” Which of the following would yield the least helpful information?

a. internet
b. cinahl
c. psychlit
d. medline

a

The Internet can provide the researcher with inaccurate and accurate information. The other listed sources provide professional, accurate information on specialized topics in a more convenient manner.

A researcher is interested in conducting an integrative review of pain tools used in nonverbal persons. An appropriate method to maximize hits when conducting a literature search includes:

a. inserting single terms as keywords
b. limiting the search to the last 5 years
c. performing a complex search
d. surfing the internet

c

Complex searches combining two or more concepts in one search provide more accurate and meaningful results.

The type of reasoning used with integrating findings from multiple studies is:

a. analysis
b. application
c. comprehension
d. synthesis

d

Synthesis is required to integrate findings from multiple studies.

When conducting a meta-analysis, the researcher:

a. creates benchmarks
b. performs statistical analyses using findings from multiple studies
c. discards insignificant findings
d. synthesizes findings

b

Meta-analysis goes a step beyond synthesis to perform statistical analyses using data provided in multiple studies.

A scholarly review of research literature is designed to:

a. correct gaps in the current knowledge base
b. describe current knowledge of the problem
c. implement new protocols
d. prevent researchers from making previous mistakes

b

The review of literature in a research report is a summary of current knowledge about a particular practice problem and includes what is known and not known about this problem. The literature is reviewed to summarize knowledge for use in practice or to provide a basis for conducting a study.

At what point during a study does a qualitative researcher using a phenomenological approach review the literature?

a. at the beginning of the study
b. during generation of the research report
c. throughout the study
d. while collecting data

b

Phenomenologists believe that the literature should be reviewed after data collection and analysis, so that the information in the literature will not influence the researcher’s openness.

Researchers selecting an electronic database to search for a subject would initiate the search by typing a/an:

a. author’s name
b. journal title
c. keyword
d. truncated word

c

Keywords are the major concepts or variables of a research problem or topic. These terms will be what you key in to begin a search. In most databases, phrases can be used, as well as single terms. As relevant studies are identified, they can be reviewed for other terms to be used as keywords. Alternative terms (synonyms) for concepts or variables also can be used as keywords.

A researcher who performs statistical analyses using summative findings from multiple published quantitative studies on a specific topic is using the strategy referred to as:

a. conceptual mapping
b. meta-analysis
c. multiple regression
d. retrospective quantification

b

Meta-analyses go beyond the integrated review by performing statistical analyses using summative findings from multiple published studies.

Which type of qualitative research involves reviewing the literature before the study to provide a background for conducting the study, as in quantitative research?

a. descriptive
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. phenomenology

b

Ethnographic research involves reviewing the literature before the study to provide a background for conducting the study, as in quantitative research

Match the purpose of the literature review with the type of qualitative research. The review of the literature is done early in the research process to provide a general understanding of the variables to be examined in a selected culture.

a. ethnographic research
b. grounded theory research
d. phenomenological research
d. historical research

a

The review of literature in ethnographic research is similar to that in quantitative research. The literature is reviewed early in the research process to provide a general understanding of the variables to be examined in a selected culture. The literature usually is theoretical, because few studies typically have been conducted in the area of interest

Match the purpose of the literature review with the type of qualitative research. Use the literature to explain, support, and extend the theory generated in the study.

a. ethnographic research
b. grounded theory research
d. phenomenological research
d. historical research

b

Grounded theory researchers include a minimal review of relevant studies at the beginning of the research process. This review is merely a means of making the researcher aware of what studies have been conducted, but the information from these studies is not used to direct data collection or theory development for the current study. The researcher uses the literature primarily to explain, support, and extend the theory generated in the study.

Match the purpose of the literature review with the type of qualitative research. Review the literature to develop research questions and to use as a source of data.

a. ethnographic research
b. grounded theory research
d. phenomenological research
d. historical research

c

Phenomenology researchers compare and combine findings from the study with the literature to determine current knowledge of a phenomenon.

Match the purpose of the literature review with the type of qualitative research. Review the literature to determine the current knowledge.

a. ethnographic research
b. grounded theory research
d. phenomenological research
d. historical research

d

Historical researchers conduct an initial literature review to select a research topic and to develop research questions. Then the investigator develops an inventory of sources, locates these sources, and examines them; thus the literature constitutes a major.

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