Question Answer
Scientific Method procedures by which scientists conduct research consisting of: observation, prediction, testing, interpretation, and communication
Theory a set of related assumptions from which scientists can make testable predictions
Hypothesis specific, informed, and testable prediction of the outcome of a particular set of conditions in a research design
Replication repetition of a study to confirm the results; essential to the scientific process
Pseudoscience claims presented as scientific that are not supported by evidence obtained with the scientific method
Population group researcher is interested in
Sample subsets of the population studied in a research project
Case Study which a psych observes one person over a long period of time
Naturalistic Observation researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world
Representative Sample research sample that accurately reflects the population of people one is studying
Correlational Design measures two or more variables and their relationship to one another
Independent Variable experimenter manipulates under the controlled conditions
Dependent Variable the outcome and the response to the experimental manipulation
Random Assignment method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same change of being in any specific group
Experimental Group consisting of participants who receive treatment and whatever is predicted to change behavior
Control group treated in exactly the same manner as the experimental group, except they don't receive the treatment
Self Reports written or oral accounts of a person's thoughts, feelings, or actions- EX: interviews and questionnaires- limits- lack of clear insight into one's own behavior
Behavioral Measures measures based on systematic observation of people's actions either in normal environment / in the laboratory setting- EX: small scale studies on behavior- limits: participants may modify their behavior
Physiological Measures measures based on bodily responses such as blood pressure, heart rate, used to determine changes in psych state EX: studies to determine the magnitude of psych change Limits: specialized training on expensive equipment
Multiple Measures several measures combined to acquire data on one aspect of behavior EX: offset limitation of any single measurement LIMIT: expensive and time consuming
Informed Consent tell the participant what the study is about, what they will, do, how long it will happen for, risks/benefits
Respect for Persons safeguard dignity/autonomy of the individual/ take extra precautions
Beneficence inform the participants of the cost and benefits of participation
Privacy and Confidentiality protects the privacy of the participant, keeps all responses confidential
Justice benefits and costs equally distributed amongst the participants
Mean the arithmetic average of a series of numbers
Median the score that separates the lower half of scores from the upper half
Mode a statistic that represents the most commonly occurring score or value
Frequency the number of times a particular score occurs in a set of data
Normal Distribution a plot of how frequent data are that is perfectly symmetrical, with most scores clustering in the middle, only a few scares at the extremes
Theory a set of relative assumptions from which scientists can make testable predictions
Hypothesis specific, informed, and testable prediction of what kind of outcome should occur under a particular condition
Three types of research designs descriptive, correlational, and experimental studies
Descriptive Studies case study, naturalistic observation, and interviews/surveys
Correlational Studies measures two or more variables and their relationship to one another. Is X related to Y?- useful when variables cannot be manipulated
Experimenter expectancy effects occur when the behavior of the participants is influenced by the experimenter's knowledge of who is in which condition
Self-fulfilling prophecy a statement that affects events to cause the prediction to become true
Measures the tools and techniques used to assess thought or behavior
Social desirability bias the tendency toward favorable self presentation that could lead to inaccurate self reports
Descriptive Statistics measures sued to describe and summarize research
Standard deviation a statistical measure of how much scores in a sample vary around the mean
Ethics rules governing the conduct of a person or group in general or in a specific situation or standards of right or wrong
Descriptive designs makes no prediction and does not try to control any variables
Research Design how to conduct a study
APA American psych association- sets research guidelines and ethics
IRB Institutional review boards review the ethical standards before giving permission for each research study